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标题: 美语听力与发音技巧
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发表于 2008-9-25 10:53  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

美语听力与发音技巧



美语听力与发音技巧 第1期


Welcome to Daily tips on Learning English. Today's tip is on distinguishing “can” and “cannot” in spoken American English.

“Cannot” is usually contracted to “can't”. So many learners of English assume that in order to distinguish between “can” and “can't”, one must listen for the final “t” sound /t/. And when speaking, one must pronounce final ‘t’ sound /t/ clearly. However, this is not in fact how native speakers distinguish “can” and “can't”. People do not say ‘I `can drive a car, but I can’t drive a motorcycle.’ People say ‘I can `drive a car', but I `can't drive a motorcycle.’ The difference between “can” and “can't” is in stress. “Can” is not stressed, the verb after it is. “Can't” is stressed. The verb after it is not.

Also since ‘can’ is not stressed, the vowel is reduced to /a/, so “can” is actually pronounced “can”. Listen to another example. “I `can't go on Saturday, but I can `go on Sunday.” Did you hear the 't' sound? Did you notice the difference words being stressed? Listening again. “I `can't go on Saturday, but I can `go on Sunday.” If you want to understand whether someone is saying he can or can't do something, you have to be listening for a stressed “can't” or a verb stressed after “can”. What does this mean? “I can `speak Japanese, but I `can't speak Taiwanese.” That's right, I can speak Japanese, but I cannot speak Taiwanese. When you are speaking it is very important that you follow this rule too. When learners of English say I `can help you, native speakers often unsure what is meant because of improper stress. So remember, you can stress “can't”, but you `can't stress “can”.

This has been today's tip on learning English. Tune in tomorrow for another tip.

[ 本帖最后由 csxdy 于 2008-9-25 11:27 编辑 ]

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:31  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

美语听力与发音技巧 第2期



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on how syllable stress can affect the meaning of words.
Remenber that stressed syllables are said louder and are lengthened, and unstressed syllables are pronounced more softly, and often have the vowel sounds reduced.
Sometimes, this difference can be the difference between a verb and a noun, or an adjective.
There are at least 14 pairs of words in which syllable stress alone makes this difference. Some examples include `addict, a`ddict, `convict, con`vict, `perfect, per`fect. Each time the second syllable is stressed, the word is a verb. When the first syllable is stressed, the word is either a noun or an adjective. Let’s look some examples more closely. `Permit, per`mit, a `permit is a noun, it is a piece of paper which authorizes you to do something. For instance, a fishing `permit allows you to go fishing. Per`mit is a verb. It means to allow. For instence, fishing isn’t per`mitted here without a `permit.
Another example is `perfect, per`fect. `Perfect is an adjective. It means 100% correct, no mistakes or errors. The verb is per`fect, it means to make something perfect. For example, “I want to per`fect my English” means “I want to make my English perfect”. Make sure you stress the right syllable. It can be the differece between different parts of speech. This has been today’s daily tip. Till then, tomorrow, for another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:32  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第3期(清浊辅音结尾对元音的影响)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on how different vowel lengths are used to differentiate words ending in voiced and voiceless consonants.
Let’s take an example. There’s something in my eyes. There’s something in my ice. The last words in the examples, eyes and ice differ in 2 ways. One difference is the word eyes end with the sound “z”, and ice end with the sound “s”. The other difference in the pronunciation of “eyes” and “ice” is how the vowel sound “ai” is pronounced. In the word “eyes”, it is longer. In the word “ice”, it is very short.
Listen to the examples again, and note that the final consonant sound is not as clear as the difference in the length of the vowel. There’s something in my eyes. There’s something in my ice. Listen again. There’s something in my eyes. There’s something in my ice. Listen to some other examples of words that are identical except for the final consonants and the vowel length. Cap, cab, plate, played, seat, seed. Today’s tip is to pay more attention to the length of vowels, as this difference is very important in distinguishing some words. Till then, tomorrow, to another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:34  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第4期(连音)



Welcome to daily tips on learning English. Today’s tip is on sound linking.
Although in written English, there’re spaces between every word, in spoken English there’re always never (1)pauses between words. In order to understand spoken English, it is (2)essential to understand how this linking is done. Today let’s (3)concentrate on the most common sound linking situation. Whenever a word ending in a consonant sound is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound, the consonant sound is linked to the vowel sound as if they were part of the same word.
Let’s look at some examples. I’d like another bowl of rice, please. First, note that although there’re six words in the sentence, all the words are linked together without pause. Listen again. I’d like another bowl of rice, please. Now listen to how the words “like” and “another” are linked. “Like another”, “like-another”. “Like” ends in a consonant sound, and “another” begins with a vowel sound. So the “k” from “like” is linked to the “a” from “another” to produce “kanother”. Listen to the example sentence again. I’d like another bowl of rice, please. In the sentence there is another example of a consonant being linked to a vowel. A bowl of, a bowl-of. It sounds like that you’re saying the word “love”. Here’s another example. I’d love a bowl of rice. I’d love a bowl of rice. This sound linking is probably the biggest problem for learners of English when they try to understand native speaker’s talking. We’ll talk more about sound linking in future daily tips, as this is an extremely import feature of spoken English. Today’s tip is to link consonants to vowels which come after them. Till then, tomorrow, for another daily tip.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:35  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第5期(“h”音的略读)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on sound linking.
Remember that although written English has spaces between every word, spoken English doesn’t have pauses after every word. As a matter of fact, long strings of words are all linked together. And it is this linking, which often makes it difficult for learners of English to understand native speaker’s talking. Today’s tip is to notice how the “h” sound is often dropped in personal pronouns such as “he”, “him”, “his” and “her”. And when it is dropped, what is left is a vowel sound, and the vowel sound is always linked to the preceding word.
Let’s look at an example. Give her a book. Giv-er a book. Notice how the “h” is dropped and how “give her” become “giv-er”. Look at another example. Tell him to ask her. Tell-im to ask-er. Did you notice that “tell him” became “tell-im” and “ask her” became “ask-er”? This happens very frequently in spoken English, especially when “he” follows an auxiliary verb. For example, “what will he do?” becomes “What will-i do?” “Where will he go?” becomes “Where will-i go?” “When will he come?” becomes “When will-i come?” “Who will he meet?” becomes “Who will-i meet?” “How will he know?” becomes “How will-i know?” “Has he gone?” becomes “Has-i gone?” “Had he done it before?” becomes “Had-i done it before?” “Must he go?” becomes “Must-i go?” “Can he do it?” becomes “Can-i do it?” “Should he leave?” becomes “Should-I leave?” it’s important to accustom yourself to the dropped “h” sound in sound linking. This has been today’s daily tip. Tune in tomorrow for another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:36  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第6期(辅音连续)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on sound linking.
When 2 identical or similar consonants are in a row, most sounds are not pronounced. For example, stop Peter. “stop” ends in the sound “p”, and “Peter” begins in the same sound. Together the words are linked as “sto-peter”. The words aren’t pronounced stop Peter. To pronounce two identical sounds one after another, would sound like someone stuttering. English words are always linked smoothly. Similar but not identical sounds such as voiced and voiceless pairs of consonants are also linked in this way. For example, it’s a big cake. “big” begins in the sound “g”, cake begins with the sound “k”. “k” and “g” differ only in that “k” is voiceless and “g” is voiced. When they are next to each other in a phrase they’re linked smoothly by not aspirating or pronouncing fully the first of the 2 sounds. Listen carefully as I read the example again. It’s a big cake. Notice how the first sound “g” is not released. If the pair of sounds is reversed, like in “I like goats.” it is the “k” sound which is not pronounced. Listen closely. I like goats. I like goats.
There’re 8 pairs of consonants that differ only in the presence or lack of vocal cord vibration. Listen as I give one example of sound linking for each pair.
v, f : I love France.
δ,θ: Let’s bathe three times.
z, s : She is Susan.
з,∫: The garage should be cleaned.
dз,t∫: He has a huge chin.
b, p : Put the cap back on.
d, t : Dad told me.
k, g : I like Gavin. (? )
It is important to include this type of sound linking in your speech if you want to achieve fluency. It is also important to be aware of how this linking affects how spoken English sounds. Otherwise you may not understand native speaker’s speech. This has been today’s daily tip. Tune in tomorrow for another on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:37  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第7期(冠词“a”)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on using or omitting the English article “a” correctly.
There’s no single rule that explains how to choose whether you should use “a”, use “the” or not use any article at all. Sometimes there’s only one correct choice, and in other cases, different choices change the meaning of the sentence. Today let’s discuss the most frequently occurring differences between using the article “a” and using no article. All English nouns can be divided into 2 classes: those that are countable and those that are uncountable.
It is the meaning of a noun as it is used in a sentence which determines whether it is countable or uncountable. For instance, in the sentence “She has long hair.”, “hair” is uncountable. But in the sentence “There’s a hair in my soup.”,” hair” is countable. This can create some interesting mistakes. For example, “I like a dog” does not mean 我喜欢狗, that should be “I like dogs.” If you say “I like dog”, that means you like to eat dog meat. If you say “I ate a hamburger”, that means 我吃了一个汉堡, but if you say “I ate hamburger”, that means you ate raw ground beef. If you say “I ate a cake’, that means you ate a whole cake, which is very unlikely. You should have said, “I ate cake”, then it means you ate some cake.
Notice how the use of the article “a” means that the noun it precedes is countable, and therefore you’re talking about a whole one, an entire one. If you omit the article “a”, then it means that you can’t count the noun it precedes, and therefore you are talking about a piece or a quantity or something. So remember to pay careful attention to whether nouns are being used to a countable or uncountable meaning, and be sure to use or omit the article “a” accordingly. This has been today’s daily tip. Tune in tomorrow for another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:38  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第8期(冠词的用法与读音)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on using the articles “a”, “an” and “the” correctly.
Every student of English has my sympathy in his struggles with the English articles. They are one of the most difficult parts of learning English. First of all, I urge you to do this. Listen to native speakers. When you listen, listen carefully, since the articles “the” and “a” are almost never emphasized, they do not stand out prominently in speech, but they’re pronounced. You will have to train your ears so that you will recognize that the little sounds before certain words are articles, and not meaningless noises. Also, get in the habit of pronouncing the articles in the way native speakers do. As little sounds that are part of the word they precede. For instance, think of and say “the boy”as one word. Listen to this short sentence. The boy likes the girl. Say it naturally, the boy likes the girl. Did you notice how the articles are just small sounds linked to the nouns? Listen to another example. There is a pen on a desk in the classroom. Say it naturally, there is a pen on a desk in the classroom. Did you notice how all the sounds, especially articles are linked together? The article “an” is used before nouns beginning with a vowel sound, such as “an apple”. Notice how the “n” sound is linked to the word which follows it. Also notice that words that spelled with the letter “h” in the beginning such as “hour” also use the article “an” because the “h” isn’t pronounced. So we say, “an-our”, not “a hour”. And some words spelled with the letter “u” in the beginning such as “unicycle” use the article “a” because the first sound is the “y” sound “j”. So we say, a unicycle, not an unicycle.
It’s also important to note that the pronunciation of the article “the” changes to “δi :” before words beginning with a vowel sound. So we say “δi :” elevator, not “δэ”elevator.
Another tip is, do not be misled by newspaper headlines, advertisements and titles of book and so forth. They frequently omit articles which are necessary in complete sentences in both spoken and written English. Knowing when to use “a”, when to use “the”, and when not to use any article at all is undoubtably one of the most difficult aspects of learning English. We will talk about this topic more in an upcoming daily tip. Tune in tomorrow for another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:40  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

现在开通英语博克!
美语听力与发音技巧 第9期(句子中的重音)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on word stress on sentences.
In general, it is true that content words are stressed whereas function words are not stressed. Content words usually convey the meaning of the sentence. Function words make the sentence grammatically correct. Content words are: nouns, main verbs, adjectives, adverbs, this, that, these, those, and “wh-“ words, who, what, when, why, how, which. Function words are: articles, such as “a” and “the”; possessive adjectives, such as “his”, “my”, “your”; prepositions, such as “in”, “on”, “of”; conjunctions, such as “and”, “but”; personal pronouns, such as “ I”, “he”, “she”; the “be” verb, “am”, “is”, “are”, “was”, “were”; and auxiliaries, such as “do”, “does”, “did”.
Take for example the sentence “Andrew brushes his teeth every morning.” The content word alone can convey the meaning of the sentence, namely “Andrew brushes teeth every morning.” The functional word “his” only makes the sentence grammatically correct. So “his” is unstressed, the other words are stressed. Why isn’t “his” stressed? Because of course he brushes his teeth, not your teeth, or my teeth. This we would naturally assume. If, however, Andrew brushes someone else’s teeth beside his own, then it would be very important to let your listener know that by stressing whose teeth he brushes.
So, what words should be stressed? The simple answer is whatever words are important to the meaning you are trying to convey. if someone write the sentence on the board out of context and asks, “Which words are important? Which words should you stress?” You should answer, “That depends on the context.” Stress is used to let your listener know what is important to your message. If you stress words properly, your listener will have an easy time understanding your message. If you stress every word equally, then your listener will have to listen very carefully and try to guess the main point of your message. If your stress the wrong words, the listener will misunderstand your message or just feel very confused. So remember to stress the important words to your massage.
This has been today’s daily tip. Tune in tomorrow for another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:41  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第10期(断句)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on the use of pauses in English speech.
Although written English has spaces between every word, spoken English doesn’t have pauses between each word, rather words are linked together. However, people do not normally speak without pausing at all. We do pause in speech. While in written English, there are periods, commas, semicolons and question marks. But we also pause in long sentences without punctuation marks. Let’s look at some examples. My mother listens to the radio in the evening. This sentence can be said without pausing, because it isn’t very long. But if I were to pause, I would say, “My mother/ listens to the radio/ in the evening.” Why? Because pauses come between thought groups----groups of words that express one thought.
For example, “in the evening” is a thought group. Let’s make the sentence longer. My mother listens to the radio in the evening, plays tennis in the afternoon, and cleans the house in the morning. Now it is necessary to pause because the sentence is very long. Pauses come between thought groups, and help the listeners organize the information they hear. Listen to sentence again. My mother listens to the radio in the evening, plays tennis in the afternoon, and cleans the house in the morning. If you pause in the wrong places, listeners will have a harder time organizing the information. Listen to the sentence read again with improper pausing. My mother listens to the radio in/ the evening, plays tennis in /the afternoon, and cleans the/ house in the morning. Now the sentence is almost impossible to understand, so remember to pause between thought groups, to help your listeners easily organize what they hear.
This has been today's tip on learning English. Tune in tomorrow for another tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:42  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第11期(定语从句前的停顿)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on when to use pauses before adjective clauses.
Let’s take an example. In the sentence “My sister who lives in San Francisco is a doctor”, the adjective clause is “who lives in San Francisco”. It describes my “sister”. There’s no pause before the adjective clause. So, it means that I have more than one sister, and the one who lives in San Francisco is doctor. There’s a pause after an adjective clause because it is a long sentence. But there can be no pause in the group of words “my sister who lives in San Francisco”. Because this is one idea or thought group. Listen to the sentence again. “My sister who lives in San Francisco is a doctor.” The same words used in that sentence have a different meaning if there’s a pause before the adjective clause “who lives in San Francisco”. Listen to the new sentence. “My sister, who lives in San Francisco, is a doctor.” Now there’s a pause before, and a pause after the adjective clause, and in writing, there now is a comma before and a comma after the adjective clause. This sentence means that I have only one sister. She is a doctor, and by the way, she lives in San Francisco. The information conveyed by who lives in San Francisco is not necessary to understand whom I am talking about, as I only have one sister. I just added it in passing.
If you say, “My girl friend who drives a BMW is a good dancer.” You’re saying that you have more than one girl friend. “My boss who is very generous gives me a raise every year” means I have more than one boss. “Hawaii which is an island in the Pacific is a poplar tourist spot” means there’s another Hawaii not in the Pacific. So remember to pause before and after adjective clauses only when it is referring to something or someone of which there’s only one.
This has been today’s daily tip on learning English.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:43  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第12期(问句的语调)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on the intonation of questions.
Remember that intonation is the rising and falling of the pitch of your voice. So “she’s here.” is a statement, but “she’s here?” is a question. But it isn’t true that all questions have a rising intonation. Today, let’s just look at the intonation of three types of questions: “Yes/No” questions, “Wh-” questions and choice questions.
“Yes/No” questions have a rising intonation. “Wh-”qusetions have a falling intonation. And choice questions have a rising intonation for every choice except the last choice, which has a falling intonation.
“Yes/No” questions such as “Do you like Taiwan?” “Can you speak Chinese?” have a rising intonation. The listener must answer either “yes” or “no”. “Wh-” questions start with the words “who”, “what”, “where”, “when”,” why”, “which” and “how”. “Wh-” questions have a falling tone. For example, “What time is it?↘” “Where do you live?↘” Don’t say “What time is it?↗” “Where do you live?↗” In choice questions, the listener is expected to choose one item from several. For example, “Would you like juice, Coke, Tea or coffee?” A rising tone is used for every choice except the last, which has a falling tone. Listen to another example. “Do you like basketball, baseball, soccer or football?”. So remember that “Yes/No” questions, “Wh-” questions, and choice question have different intonation patterns, and make sure to intone them properly.
This has been today’s daily tip on learning English. Tune in tomorrow for another tip.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:45  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

现在开通英语博克!
美语听力与发音技巧 第13期(是YES还是NO)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on answering “Yes/No” questions correctly.
In English, “Yes” is always followed by affirmative statements. “No” is always followed by negative statements.
This means you can’t say, “Yes, I haven’t eaten dinner yet.” Or “No, I did my home work.” Chinese allows this, but English does not. There’re different kinds of “Yes/No” questions. Simple “Yes/No” questions such as “Do you speak English?” “Are you hungry?” pose no problem. But negative questions such as “Don’t you speak English?” “Aren’t you hungry?” require the same answers. “Yes, I do.” “No, I don’t.” or “Yes, I am.” “No, I’m not.” Chinese learners of English are often misled by negative questions, and answer, “Yes, I don’t speak English.” Or “Yes, I’m not hungry.” by accident. Another type of “Yes/No” questions is to use a rising intonation with a statement. For example, you ask a Chinese person, “Did you eat dinner?” and he says, “No, I didn’t.” You’re surprised, so you ask, “You didn’t eat dinner?” and he answers, “Yes.” instead of “No”. Don’t use “yes” to mean “是的”. You should say, “That’s correct.” In the example above, “Yes” means “Yes, I ate dinner.” Not “Correct, I didn’t eat dinner. Let’s look at another example. I think that all Chinese people like to eat rice. So, when my Chinese friend tells me that he never eats rice, I was very surprised, and I ask, “You don’t like to eat rice?” and he answers, “Yes.” This is wrong. Because in English, you can not say, “Yes, I don’t like to eat rice.” He should answer, “No.” or “That’s correct.” So remember, “Yes” must be followed by affirmative statements, and “No” must be followed by negative statements.
This has been today’s daily tip on learning English. Tune in tomorrow for another tip.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:46  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第14期(“t”的发音)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on the pronunciation of the letter “t”.
Of course the letter “t” is usually pounced “t”. But you may have noticed that in fluent speech, native speakers sometimes pronounced the “t” as “d”. That happens when the “t” comes between two voiced sounds.
Do you know what sounds in English are voiced? Well, there’re 15 voiced consonant sounds in English. b, d, g, m, n, ɡ, z,δ, l, r, dз,з,j,w. Also, all vowel and diphthong sounds in English are voiced. So let’s look at some examples of words in which the “t” may be pronounced “d”.
No.1 “matter”. “matter” is often pronounced “mader” as in “What’s the matter?”
No.2 “atom”. “atom” is often pronounced “adom” as in “The first atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.”
No.3 “twenty”. “twenty” is often pronounced “twendi” as in “That will be twenty dollars, please.”
No.4 “little”. “little” is often pronounced “liddle” as in “He got a little angry.”
No.5 “city”. “city” is often pronounced “cidi” as in “Did you grow up in the city or the country?”
No.6 “butter”. “butter” is often pronounced “buder” as in “Pass the butter, please.”
When people speak slowly or emphatically, however, they usually pronounce the “t” like “t”, not like “d”. Also, a “t” does not sound like “d” when it comes before a stressed vowel as in “return”.
This has been today’s daily tip on learning English. Tune in tomorrow for another tip.

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发表于 2008-9-25 11:48  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
美语听力与发音技巧 第15期(助动词的强调)



Welcome to Daily Tips on Learning English. Today’s tip is on when to stress auxiliary verbs.
Although auxiliary verbs are not usually stressed, when we want to strongly emphasize a verb, we stress the auxiliary verb. And if there’s no auxiliary verb, we add one. These sentences are called emphatic sentences. For example, compare the sentences “He’s done his home work” and “He has done his home work.” Usually we would say, “He’s done his homework.” And the auxiliary verb “has” would not be stressed. But if we want to emphasize the meaning of “has done”, we stress the auxiliary verb “He has done his homework.” This is an emphatic sentence. Sentences which don’t usually contain an auxiliary verb has an auxiliary verb in emphatic sentences, and it is always stressed. Emphatic sentences are usually used after someone has expressed the opposite meaning. For example, “-You didn’t finish your homework.” “-I did finish my homework.” “-Maybe she doesn’t know how to drive.” “-On the contrary, he does know how to drive.” “-You don’t speak Chinese, do you?” “I do speak Chinese. I just wanted to give you some practice speaking English.”
Did you notice how I said “I did finish” instead of “I finished”, and “she does know” instead of “she knows”, “I do speak” instead of “I speak”. The auxiliary verbs “did”, “does” and “do” were added to make the sentence more emphatic
Be careful though not to use emphatic sentences unless you have a reason. Don’t think that you can not learn the past tense of every verb and just say “I did eat”, “I did go” instead of “I ate” and “I went”. If you do this, your listeners will be confused. Your listeners will be thinking, “Why is that so important?” “Why is he stressing that so much?” This is not just another way of saying “I ate” and “I went”. You can only say “I did eat” and “I did go” when there’s a reason for stressing this.
So remember that although auxiliary verbs are not usually stressed, in emphatic sentences they are. This has been today’s daily tip on learning English. Tune in tomorrow for another tip.

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