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     开通英语博客

 
标题: The English Learner`s Guide to Chinglish 中式英语之鉴
tanlaoshi
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76. 他的病情好多了。
[误] His sick condition is much better.
[正] His condition is much better.

注:在英美人看来,sick 只是一种无意义的重复,因为去掉它以后意思一亲清楚,而且还更地道。我们甚至可以更简单地翻译为 He is much better。

77. 经常给我写信。
[误] Write letters to me often.
[正] Write to me often.

注:中文动宾结构的宾语在翻译成英文时常常省略,因为这些英语动词本身已经包含了中文宾语的意思,不言自明,除非需要强调,否则可以省略,不省略反而与英语习惯不符。上面的例句就是个很好的例子。又如:“你会唱歌吗”(Can you sing);“我会付钱给你”(I'll pay you);“他花很多时间读书”(He spends a lot of time reading)等。

78. 挑战者以0比4的比分输了与冠军队的那场比赛。
[误] The challengers lost the game by zero to four to the champion.
[正] The challengers lost the game by nil to four to the champion.

注:zero 和 nil 虽然都可以表示“零”,但 zero 多用于电话号码或邮政编码,而 nil 则特指比赛的比分。同样,0比0就应该翻译成 nil to nil。

79. 在一次具有历史意义的表决中,北京羸得了申办奥运会的机会。
[误] In a historical vote, Beijing won the bid for the Olympics.
[正] In a historic vote, Beijing won the bid for the Olympics.

注:historic 表示“历史上著名的,有历史意义的”,而 historical 则表示“有关历史的,历史学的”。

80. 你读没读过菲尔丁的经典长篇小说《汤姆.琼斯》?
[误] Have you ever read Fielding's classical novel Tom Jones?
[正] Have you ever read Fielding's classic novel Tom Jones?

注:classic 即可作形容词,表示“经典的,第一流的”,又可作可数名词,表示“经典作品”;而 classical 却是一个没有比较级和最高级的形容词,常指“(建筑,文学,音乐等方面)古典的,传统的”。






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81. 未经允许,任何人不得入内。
[误] Anybody can not come in without permission.
[正] Nobody can come in without permission.

注:“任何......都不”是汉语中常用字的否定句式,而在英语中,any 构成的合成词及其所修饰的词语作主语时,谓语动词是不能用否定形式的。因此,any ... not 的用法不符合英语的表达习惯,须用“否定形式的主语+肯定形式的谓语”替换。但是,any 构成的合成词及其所修饰的词语作主语时,如果带有后置定语,那么其谓语也可以用否定形式。如:Anyone who does that isn't honest(干那种事的人都是不诚实的)。

82. 听到这个消息,没有一个人不感到兴奋。
[误] Having heard the news, nobody did not feel excited.
[正] Having heard the news, everybody felt excited.

注:汉语中把主、谓语同时否定以表示肯定,但这不符合英语习惯,所以 nobody...not 的结构在英语中是不正确的。翻译这类句子时,可像上面正确的译文那样,把主语和谓语都改成肯定形式;也可用“there be + 否定的主语 + 否定形式的定语从句”来表达,即:There was nobody who did not feel excited 或者 There was nobody but felt excited.

83. 我是一个中国人。
[误] I am a Chinese.
[正] I am Chinese.

注:第一句译文是不地道的,正确的说法应该去掉不定冠词,或者说 I am a Chinese man。同样,He is an English 也没有 He is English 或 He is an Englishman 好。

84. 母狼为了保护幼崽同猎豹展开了殊死的搏斗。
[误] The female wolf fights against the leopard so as to protect her whelps.
[正] The she wolf fights against the leopard so as to protect her whelps.

注:汉语一般用“公”、“母”或“雌”、“雄”来区分动物的性别,而英语中,有一部分动物是雌雄各有其名,例如:cock(公鸡)和 hen(母鸡),stag(雄鹿)和 doe(雌鹿)等;而另一部分则是用 male 和 female 加以区分,如:male leopard(公豹),female panda(母熊猫)等;当然,也有例外的情况,如:bull elephant(公象)和 cow elephant(母象),he wolf(公狼)和 she wolf(母狼)等。

85. 使我高兴的是,我儿子对意大利语也略知一二。
[误] To my joy, my son know a thing or two about Italian.
[正] To my joy, my son knows something about Italian.

注:有些英语词语在字面上同汉语十分相似,但实则貌合神离,如果不求甚解很容易出错。例如,know a thing or two 就不表示“略知一二”,而是“很有经验,精明强干”的意思。






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现在开通英语博克!

86. 你希望什么时候成家呢?
[误] When do you want to start a family?
[正] When do you want to get married?

注:中文的“成家”是“结婚”的意思,而英文 start a family 的含义却是“生第一个孩子”,二者完全不是一回事。

87. 宁做鸡头,不做凤尾。
[误] Better be the head of a cock than the tail of a phoenix.
[正] Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion.

注:每种语言中都有许多约定俗成的表达,没有什么道理好讲,但使用时则需遵照各自的语言习惯。中文是“鸡头”和“凤尾”比,而英语中却要用“狗头”和“狮尾”。

88. 海伦就像一只骄傲的公鸡,从来不爱搭理别人。
[误] Helen is proud as a cock, and she never talks to others.
[正] Helen is proud as a peacock, and she never talks to others.

注:“孔雀”在中国人眼里是美丽和吉祥的象征,而公鸡因为常把头昂得高高地,尾巴翘到了天上,摆出一副盛气凌人的架子,因此成了“骄傲”的化身。但西方文化不注重孔雀美丽的一面,认为它们很骄傲,所以英美人在形容一个人骄傲、狂妄和爱慕虚荣时,就把他(她)比作 peacock。

89. 因为没有吃的,那个索马里的小男孩瘦得像猴子。
[误] That Somali boy is as thin as a monkey because of the lack of food.
[正] That Somali boy is as thin as a shadow because of the lack of food.

注:同一事物,在不同的文化里可能引起不同的联想,具有不同的内涵。所以,在一种语言中用这种事物作比喻,而在另一种语言中很可能会有不同的表达。这样的例子中英文还有很多,例如:as timid as a hare(胆小如鼠),as strong as a horse(力大如牛),as poor as a church mouse(一贫如洗)等。

90. 索菲娅望子成龙心切,给儿子报名参加了许多补习班。
[误] Sophia hopes to see her son become a dragon, therefore she enters his name for many classes of supplementary schooling.
[正] Sophia hopes that her son will have a bright future, therefore she enters his name for many classes of supplementary schooling.

注:“龙”在中国人心目中象征着神圣和万能,但在西方人的印象中却是可怕的,《圣经》里就把“龙”描述成了罪恶的象征。所以在翻译“望子成龙”时需要意译。






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91. 由于街道的扩建,道路两旁矮小的房屋全部被拆除了。
[误] The short and small houses on both sides of the road have been demolished due to its widening.
[正] The low and small houses on both sides of the road have been demolished due to its widening.

注:英语中,形容人或树等的高矮要用形容词 tall 和 short;但是指山峦、房屋或其它建筑物的高矮,我们通常用 high 和 low。

92. 爸爸总爱发脾气。
[误] Dad always likes losing his temper.
[正] Dad is apt to lose his temper.

注:like doing something 表示“喜欢干某事”,一般用来说明某人的兴趣爱好;而 be apt to do sth.则表示“常常发生某种行为”或“容易发生某种变化”。根据原文的意思显然应该用后者。

93. 欧文按捺不住激动的心情,大声喊道:“我中奖了!”
[误] Owen couldn't hold back his exciting feeling, and he shouted, "I've got the winning number in the bond!"
[正] Owen couldn't hold back his excitement, and he shouted, "I've got the winning number in the bond!"

注:exciting feeling 这种搭配很不地道,虽然“振奋人心的消息”是 exciting news,“有趣的故事”是 interesting story,但“激动的心情”却要用名词形式 excitement 来表达。

94. 丹尼斯自己不努力,还老是眼红别人的成就。
[误] Denis himself doesn't work hard, however, he is always red-eyed of other people's achievements.
[正] Denis himself doesn't work hard, however, he is always green-eyed of other people's achievements.

注:中国人说一个人嫉妒用“眼红”,但英美人则用“眼绿”来形容。英语的 green 除了表示颜色之外还有“嫉妒”的意思,又如:I was absolutely green (with envy) when I saw his splendid new car(我看到他那辆漂亮的新车非常眼红)。其实,英语中许多表示色彩的词汇都有特殊的含义,不能照字面去理解。再比如:He gave me a black look(他恶狠狠地蹬了我一眼);She visits us once in a blue moon(她难得来看我们一次)等。

95. 夏天要多喝白开水。
[误] You should drink more white boiled water in summer.
[正] You should drink more plain boiled water in summer.

注:“白开水”不是指“水的颜色是白色”,而是指“水中没有添加其他的东西”。而 plain 正是指“没掺杂其他东西的,单纯的”,所以能确切表达原文的含义。






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96. 对不起,我把课本忘在家里了。
[误] Sorry, I forgot my textbook at home.
[正] Sorry, I left my textbook at home.

注:原文中的“忘”是指“落在家里”的意思,不能翻译成英文的 forget,而应用表示“把...留在某地,丢下,落下”等的意思的 leave。

97. 中国足球队击败了日本队,从而取得了参加半决赛的资格。
[误] The Chinese football team beat the Japanese team, and is qualified to play in the half-finals.
[正] The Chinese football team beat the Japanese team, and is qualified to play in the semifinals.

注:semi- 是英语里的一个前缀,表示“半”,例如:automatic 是“自动的”,那么 semiautomatic 就表示“半自动的”;diameter 指“直径”,那么 semi-diameter 就指“半径”;monthly 指“月刊”,那么 semi-monthly 就表示“半月刊”。以上这些都跟 semifinal(半决赛)一样,是约定俗成的。

98. 在自然灾害期间,绝大多数人都过着半饥半饱的生活。
[误] During the natural calamity, most people were half hungry, half full.
[正] During the natural calamity, most people were underfed.

注:under- 是一个英语前缀,表示“......不足的”,如:underdeveloped(经济发展不充分的),underage(未到法定年龄的)等。所以,underfeed 表示“未喂饱的,食物不足的”。汉语中“半......半......”的结构可以翻译成 half...half...,例如:As for this matter, I am half-believing, half-doubting(对于这件事我是半信半疑的);This composition is half literary, half vernacular(这篇文章写得半文不白的)。

99. 汉语是我们的母语。
[误] Chinese is our mother language.
[正] Chinese is our mother tongue.

注:tongue 除了指“舌头”,还可以用来指“语言,方言”,如 the Spanish tongue 并非指“西班牙舌头”,而是指“西班牙语”。我们常说的有“语言天赋”,英语里相应的表达是 the gift of tongues。“母语”在英语中用 mother tongue 表达,还可以说 parent language 或 linguistic parent,但 mother language 的说法却是不地道的。

100. 我爷爷是奔75的人了。
[误] My grandpa is running for seventy-five.
[正] My grandpa is getting on for seventy-five.

注:run for 有“竞赛,竞选”之意,如:run for Congress(竞选国会议员),run for the presidency(竞选总统)等。而 get on for 才表示“接近”,它通常用进行时态,后面一般跟年龄或者时间,如:It's getting on for midnight(快到半夜了)等。

***(1). push thirty[forty,etc.]已经快到三[四...]十岁了:
She would like you to think so, but she's pushing thirty.
You wouldn't think so to look at him, but he's pushing 40.

(2). get on for[towards]快到(某时间),快(多少岁):
It's getting on for nine o'clock.
He must be getting on for forty now.
Here you are getting on toward thirty.

(3). 年龄的一些说法
1) I'm twenty.(常用)
2) I'm twenty years old.(常用)
3) I'm twenty-year-old.(不常用)
4) I'm twenty years of age.(书面)
5) I'm aged twenty (years).(书面)
6) My age is twenty (years).(不常用)
7) I come into the age of twenty.(不常用)
8) I'm in my teens.(不常用)

in one's early teens(不常用)
在十三四岁年纪

not yet out of one's teens(不常用)
还没有到20岁






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101. 正如中国的一句俗话:“笨鸟先飞”。
[误] As an old Chinese saying goes, "Stupid birds have to start flying early."
[正] As an old Chinese saying goes,"Clumsy birds have to start flying early."

注:“笨鸟先飞”常用来比喻那些能力差的人,因为做事怕落后,所以就提前行动。这里的“笨”并非 stupid(智力低下的,愚蠢的)的意思,而用 clumsy(笨拙的,不灵巧的)更恰当。

102. 艾达把“发音”一词拼写错了,不过只是个笔误。
[误] Ida misspells the word "pronunciation", however, it is only a mistake of pen.
[正] Ida misspells the word "pronunciation", however, it is only a slip of the pen.

注:与 mistake(错误,误会,过失)相比,slip 更侧重于由于不经意或疏忽而造成的错误,所以“口误”一般译为 a slip of the tongue,同样,“笔误”就翻译成 a slip of the pen。

103. 我们将口头对这一问题做个表决。
[误] We shall take an oral vote on this problem.
[正] We shall take a voice vote on this problem.

注:voice 除了指“说话声,嗓音”之外,还有“(公开或正式表达出的)意见,愿望”的意思。voice vote 又叫“呼声表决”,即参加表决者叫喊“同意”或“不同意”,按呼声响亮的一方决定。而 oral 则强调“以口头的方式”,例如:oral practice(口头练习),oral examination(口试),oral report(口头汇报)等,但“口头表决”英语却没有 oral vote 之说,而习惯用 voice vote。

104. 内德有一条瘸腿。
[误] Ned has a lame leg.
[正] Ned is lame in one leg.

注:lame 作“瘸的,跛的,残废的”讲,一般用作表语,且其主语往往是人或动物,例如:go lame(变成瘸子),be lame in/或 of one leg(一条腿跛的)。当 lame 用作定语时,它常表示“站不住脚的,有缺陷的”,例如:a lame excuse(站不住脚的借口),a lame imitation(低劣的仿制品)。

105. 我舅舅的胃病又犯了。
[误] My uncle has got another attack of stomach disease.
[正] My uncle has got another attack of stomach trouble.

注:英语同汉语一样,也有很多约定俗成的表达法。同样是“病”,心脏病可以说 heart disease,但胃病、肝病、眼病等就习惯说成 stomach/liver/eye trouble。






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106. 奥尼尔是首位进入决赛的种子选手。
[误] O'Neil is the first seed player to reach the final.
[正] O'Neil is the first seed to reach the final.

注:seed 的愿意是“种子,萌芽”,后被引申为“种子选手”,所以这时不必再加 player。类似的词还有“植物人”(vegetable),它被翻译成英语时“人”字也不必译出。

107. 因为玛吉请了三天病假,所以她必须把落下的课补上。
[误] Since Maggie asked for a sick leave of three days,she should make up for her lost lessons.
[正] Since Maggie asked for a sick leave of three days,she should make up her lost lessons.

注:同样表示“弥补,补偿,补足”,make up 后面一般接具体的名词,如:make up a missed lesson(补课),a make-up examination(补考)等;而 make up for 后面的名词通常比较抽象,如:make up for the lost time(弥补时间上的损失),make up for one's defects(补其所短)等。

108. 对不起,因为交通繁忙,我迟到了20分钟。
[误] Excuse me, I am twenty minutes late because of the busy traffic.
[正] Excuse me, I am twenty minutes late because of the heavy traffic.

注:busy 的确可以作“繁忙”讲,如:the busy farming season(农忙季节),a busy day(繁忙的一天)等,但“交通繁忙”却是约定俗成的说法,要用 heavy 形容 traffic,而不是 busy。在大城市,交通一般都比较繁忙,尤其在 rush hours(上下班的高峰期),常常会出现 traffic jam(交通阻塞)。如果要表达“街上车辆很少”,可以说 There is little traffic on the roads。

109. 在很久以前,这里曾经有座宫殿。
[误] There used to be a palace here before long.
[正] There used to be a palace here long before.

注:不要想当然地以为 before long 是指“在很久以前”,恰恰相反,它的意思是“不久以后”,例如:Harry Porter will be published before long(《哈利.波特》不久就要出版了)。而 long before 才相当于 long,long ago,表示“在很久很久以前”。

110. 你真是不要脸,居然干出这种事。
[误] You are so faceless that you should have done such a thing.
[正] You are so shameless that you should have done such a thing.

注:虽然 -less 主要附在名词或动词后面构成否定形容词,表示“没有,无,不”,如:fearless(无畏的),careless(不小心的),doubtless(无疑的)等,但 faceless 的意思却是“姓名不详的,匿名的,不露面的”。而“伤风败俗的,无耻的,不要脸的(人)”则要用 shameless 来表达,而 shameful 一般用来指“可耻的,丢脸的(行为)”,例如:shameful conduct(可耻的行为),a shameless exploiter(无耻的剥削者)。






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111. 你们必须擦亮眼睛,弄清楚事情的真相。
[误] You should wipe your eye and find out the truth.
[正] You should remove the scales from your eyes and find out the truth.

注:英语里确实有 wipe one's eye 这一短语,但它表示“先发制人”或“使某人看到自己的狂妄”,而且这里的 eye 要用单数形式。而 scale 用作复数可比喻“障眼物”,英文的 remove the scales from one's eyes 才对应于中文的“擦亮眼睛”。

112. 瞧,树上有两只麻雀。
[误] Look, there are two sparrows on the tree.
[正] Look, there are two sparrows in the tree.

注:英语中,只有“长”在树上的东西才用介词 on,例如:There are lots of apples on the tree;其余均用介词 in,例如:The primitive built houses in the tree(原始人在树上建房子)。本例句也不例外。

113. 裘德在乡下有一块菜地。
[误] Jude has a piece of vegetable field in the countryside.
[正] Jude has a piece of vegetable plot in the countryside.

注:英语里 field 的确可指“(一块)田地”,如:a paddy field(一块稻田),terraced fields(梯田)等,但“菜地”却习惯称为 vegetable plot,而不是 field。 plot 指“小块土地,小块地皮”,如:an experimental plot of cotton(一块棉花试验田)。

114. 我妻子总喜欢留朋友吃顿便饭。
[误] My wife is fond of asking her friends to stay for a casual meal.
[正] My wife is fond of asking her friends to stay for a light meal.

注:casual 可作“不拘礼节的,非正式的”讲,如:clothes for casual wear(便服)。但“便饭”人们习惯用形容词 light,该词也有“随便的,不重要的”之意,如:a light conversation(闲谈)。

115. 要测量海水的深度不是一件容易的事情。
[误] It is a tough job to measure the depth of the sea.
[正] It is a tough job to fathom the depth of the sea.

注:要测量某人的身高,某人物体的长、宽、高,某两点间的距离,某物体的运动速度等,都可以用 measure 一词,例如:The room measures 10 meters across(这房间10米),但惟有测量水深时不用 measure,而要用 fathom。






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现在开通英语博克!

116. 美国是个超级大国,不少人都梦想着能移民到那儿。
[误] The United States is a super country, and many people dream of immigrating into it.
[正] The United States is a superpower, and many people dream of immigrating into it.

注:super- 是一个前缀,表示“特大的,超级的”等含义,例如:supermarket(超市),superstar(超级明星),superman(超人)等。superpower 是“超级大国”的习惯表达,power 本身也有“强国,大国”的含义,如:an industrial power(工业强国),the imperialist powers(帝国主义列强)等。用 super country 表示“超级大国”是中国式的英语。

117. 哈罗德邀请一位女士到舞池里跳舞。
[误] Harold invites a lady to dance in the dance pool.
[正] Harold invites a lady to dance in the dance floor.

注:pool 在英语里是指“水塘”或“水池”,如 swimming pool(游泳池)等。而中文的“池”意思就多了,它在“舞池”中就指“旁边高中间低的地方”,再加上许多约定俗成的说法,所以,翻译时要具体情况具体对待。如:“舞池”英文是 dance floor,而“乐池”则为orchestra pit。

118. ---我们这是上哪儿去?
- ---去我的住处。
[误] ---Where are we going to?
- ---To my living place.
[正] ---Where are we going to?
- ---To my dwelling place.

注:虽然 live 有“居住”的意思,但 living place 却是指“(房屋里)可居住的地方”,因为 living 作形容词所表达的意思是“适于居住的”。而 dwelling 本身就是名词,指“住处”或“寓所”,它也可以再修饰其他名词,如:dwelling house 或 dwelling place 等。

119. ---想喝点什么?
- ---来杯淡茶吧!
[误] ---What would you like to drink?
- ---A cup of light tea, pleas.
[正] ---What would you like to drink?
- ---A cup of weak tea, pleas.

注:一般说来,形容食物“清淡”用 light,例如:light soup(清汤),a light diet(清淡的饮食)等。形容烟、酒等“味淡的”则要用 mild,例如:The tobacco is very mild(这烟草儿很淡)。而“淡茶”的表达是 weak tea。与“淡”相对的是“浓”,可以翻译成 strong,例如:strong drinks(烈性酒),strong tea(浓茶);也可以译成 thick,例如:thick soup(浓汤)等。

120. 有人看见一位妇女和两个孩子朝路那边走去。
[误] A woman with two children were seen walking down the road.
[正] A woman with two children was seen walking down the road.

注:在英语中,主语由 as well as, with, along with, together with 等连接时,谓语动词要与这些连接词前面的名词或代词保持一致。






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121. 我们的班主任住在18栋楼4单元2号。
[误] Our head-teacher lives in Building 18, Entrance 4, No. 2.
[正] Our head-teacher lives in No. 2, Entrance 4, Building 18.

注:英语地址的写法同汉语相反,汉语是从大到小,而英语却是从小到大。例如:Bill Clinton lives in the Little Rock, Arkansas.(比尔.克林顿住在阿肯色的小石城)。

122. 如果你也那样做可就有失身份了。
[误] You would lose your identity if you'd follow suit.
[正] It would be beneath your dignity if you'd follow suit.

注:identity 是可以翻译成汉语的“身份”,如:The police made sure of his identity(警察查明了他的身份)及 an identity card(身份证)等,但它所表示的“身份”是“正身”或“个人及家庭的基本情况”。而“有失身份”的“身份”是指“一个人所处的地位和应有的尊严”,所以它不能翻译成 lose one's identity,而应用 beneath one's dignity 来表达。“在某人的尊严之下”(beneath one's dignity)不就是“有失身份”的意思吗?当然,它还可以用 not up to one's status/dignity/fame 之类的短语来表示。

123. 每个月的单号我们都有一场比赛。
[误] We have a match on single-numbered days of each month.
[正] We have a match on odd-numbered days of each month.

注:single 是“单一的,单个的”意思如:single-eyed(独眼的),single-handed(独手的,单枪匹马的)等。而 odd 才表示“单数的,奇数的”意思,如:odd houses(单号门牌的房子),odd month(有三十天的月份)等。

124. 大舌头的人发音都很糟糕。
[误] Big-tongued persons have terrible pronunciations.
[正] Thick-tongued persons have terrible pronunciations.

注:tongued 常和其他词构成复合词,如:loose-tongued(铙舌的,随口乱说的),silver-tongued(能言善辩的)等。说一个人是个口齿不清的“大舌头”,除了可用 a thick-tongued person 来表达,还可以用 a lisper 表达相同的意思。

125. 你可真是个人物啊!
[误] You are really a person.
[正] You are really a personage.

注:person 仅仅指一个普通的“人”,如:a young person(一个年轻人),a courageous person(一个勇敢的人)等。所以第一句译文的意思是“你真的是一个人”,好像在讽刺人似的。而 personage 指“要人,名流,显贵”,用这个词才能准确表达原句的意思。






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126. 你为什么不走大路偏走小路呢?
[误] Why don't you take the big road instead of the small one?
[正] Why don't you take the main road instead of the path?

注:英语里常用 main 表示“主要的”,如:main line(铁路的主要干线);main stem(河流的主要河道);mainland(对小岛和半岛而言的“大陆”)等。而中文的“大路”就是“主干道”的意思,所以也应用 main 修饰。

127. 在动笔之前,你必须先打开思路。
[误] You should open your mind before you begin to write.
[正] You should broaden your mind before you begin to write.

注:open 表示“打开,张开”时,后面通常跟具体名词,而 broaden 表示“拓宽,扩大”,其后既可以跟具体名词搭配,又可以接抽象名词,如:broaden one's horizon(开阔眼界),The street broadens here(街道在这里变宽了)。mind 是个抽象名词,所以应与 broaden 搭配。

128. 那些人攒三聚五地聚在一起干嘛呢?
[误] What are those people gathering in threes and fives for?
[正] What are those people gathering in threes and fours for?

注:汉语中有些数词可以直接翻译成英文,如:“沧海一粟”(a drop in the ocean),“一箭双雕”(kill two birds with one stone)等。但是,也有不少数词不能进行等值翻译,上面所列的就是一例。除此之外,还有“乱七八糟”(at sixes and sevens),“再三考虑”(on second thought),“三三两两地”(by ones and twos)等。

129. 我爷爷的爷爷从生下来一直到死都没有离开过这座大山。
[误] My great great-grandfather had never left the mountain from birth to death.
[正] My great great-grandfather had never left the mountain from the cradle to the grave.

注:“从......到......”常可以翻译成 from ...to...,如:from ancient times to the present(从古至今),from beginning to end(从头到尾),from dawn to dusk(从早到晚)等。第一句翻译错就错在将“生”和“死”翻得太直白了,不符合英语的习惯。

130. 要想学习英语,必须首先学会查字典。
[误] In order to learn English, one must learn to look up the dictionary first.
[正] In order to learn English, one must learn to look up words in the dictionary first.

注:look up 表示“(在字典、词典、参考书等中)查找,查寻”,后面要跟查找的对象。所以,第一句译文搭配不正确,让人误以为是要“找字典”。原文还有另外一种表达方式,即 consult the dictionary,因为 consult 表达的正是“查阅(字典、书籍等)”。






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131. 盖奇在船厂工作了30年。
[误] Cage has been working in a ship factory for thirty years.
[正] Cage has been working in a shipyard for thirty years.

注:英语中的 factory 与汉语的“厂”有时候可以对应,如:clothing factory(服装厂),chemical factory(化工厂),food products factory(食品厂)等,但也有例外,除了“船厂”要用 yard 以外,还有“酿酒厂”(brewery),砖瓦厂(brickfield),电厂(power plant)等。

132. 当心碰到脑袋。
[误] Take care of your head!
[正] Mind your head!

注:英语里提醒别人注意可以说:Take care! /Look out! /Be careful! 等,但 take care of 却表示“照顾,照料(某人或某物)”。而 mind 用作及物动词时表示“注意,留心,当心”,也有提醒注意的意思。如:Mind the wet paint(当心,油漆未干)等。

133. 买鞋油的钱你先垫着,我以后还。
[误] Please pay for the shoe oil for me. I'll pay back later.
[正] Please pay for the shoe polish for me. I'll pay back later.

注:鞋油的“油”不用 oil 表达,而要用 polish。polish 可以作“擦光剂”讲,也可以作“磨光,擦亮”讲,如:a desk with a high polish(表面光泽极好的书桌)。

134. 由于第三者插足,这对夫妻离婚了。
[误] The couple divorced because of the third person.
[正] The couple divorced because of a third party.

注:序数词一般常跟定冠词 the 连用,表示“第几”;而序数词和不定冠词 a 连用时表示的则是“另一个”。如:He won the third prize(他得了个三等奖),He won a third prize(他第三次得奖)。

135. 这是个口误。
[误] It is an oral mistake!
[正] It is a slip of the tongue!

注:“口误”要用 slip of the tongue(舌头滑了一下)表达,而 misake 一词太严重了,与汉语的内涵有出入。






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136. 三思而后行。
[误] Think three times before you act!
[正] Think twice!

注:汉语中以“三”言其多,英国人却只要求“转念”即可,所以用 twice(二)。若将中国的思维强作移植,只恐果实滋味无人懂。

137. 这是她的口头禅。
[误] This is her habitual phrase.
[正] This is her pet phrase.

注: 习惯的短语?宠物的短语?若是像对宠物一般珍视和不离,这短语自然就是中国人所谓的“口头禅”了!

138. 生命短暂而艺术永恒。
[误] Life is short, and art is long.
[正] Art is long, and time is fleeting.

注: 这是一句传诵千古的名言,若直译成英文会显消极和晦气,没有了原汁原味的神韵。

139. 过河莫忘搭桥人。
[误] Don't forget the builder of the bridge when you cross the river.
[正] Prise the bridge he goes over.

注: 第一句虽不算错,但第二句意象一转,层面一变,可就简练形象多了!

140. 习惯成自然。
[误] Habit forms nature.
[正] Habit is second nature.

注: 第二句颇有后天习得之意味,妙处也就在于此。






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141. 上梁不正下梁歪。
[误] If the upper beam is crooked, the one below is necessarily so.
[正] Fish begins to stink at the head.

注: 鱼要腐烂头先臭?西方人把中国人赋予建筑的喻义转接到了食物身上,异曲同工吧!记得不要直译哦!

142. 聊胜于无。
[误] Few is better than none.
[正] Half a bread is better than none.

注: 中国的四字成语言简意赅,而英文却将此形象化于西方人所熟悉的面包,亲切可触。

143. 忧愁伤身。
[误] Worry hurts body.
[正] Care killed the cat.

注: 既然莎翁(莎士比亚)用了一只可怜的猫,那么,就用猫好了。

144. 他输了这场球。一切都完蛋了。
[误] He has lost the game. The egg is over.
[正] He has lost the game. It has gone belly up.

注: 我们不知道中文“完蛋”二字的源头,但是英文表达里的 belly up 源自漂在水中的死鱼。怎么样?很生动吧!千万不要用鸡蛋把外国人搞得丈二和尚摸不着头脑哦!

145. 他俩好得能穿一条裤子。
[误] They are so close as if they could wear the same trousers.
[正] They are hand in glove.

注: 中国人的这一表达在西方人看来简直是莫名其妙,他们相应的说法是像手在手套里一样亲密无间。






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现在开通英语博克!

146. 他资质平平。
[误] He has a normal intelligence.
[正] He has an average intelligence.

注: normal 言其正常,average 言其平庸。貌似一般,但内涵不同,绝对不可滥用。

147. 他这次可是搬起石头砸自己的脚。
[误] This time, he has carried a stone and let it fall on his own feet.
[正] This time, he has shot himself in the foot.

注: 中文和英文都用了“脚”,可是一个要用“石头”,一个要用“枪”。别记错了!

148. 他老是信口开河。
[误] He is always making his mouth flow like a river.
[正] He is always shooting off his mouth!

注: 中国人的这一比喻西方人是无论如何也理解不了的,他们不仅体会不到其中的夸张,还会以为这个人整天口水直流呢!

149. 这事儿八字还没一撇呢!
[误] I have not drawn the first part of the letter eight!
[正] It has not got to the first base!

注: 这句话与汉字形状有关,直译成英文真是要多怪有多怪。幸好英文里有一个类似表达,那就拿来用吧!

150. 她最爱给人当头泼凉水了。
[误] She loves pouring cold water over other's head.
[正] She loves throwing a wet blanket on others.

注: wet blanket 在英语中指“令人扫兴的人或事”,而中文的“泼凉水”在这里也不是直泼,也是“令人扫兴”的意思。所以在某些时候,中国人的“泼凉水”等同于西方人的“抛湿毯子”呢!






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