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     开通英语博客

 
标题: The English Learner`s Guide to Chinglish 中式英语之鉴
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301. 她可是当时有名的交际花。
[误] She was then a famous social flower.
[正] She was then a famous social butterfly.

注:我们中国人觉得“交际花”十分贴切,但直译成英文却会让人感到另据。butterfly 才是地道的英国说法呢。

302. 他逞酒后之勇说出了真相。
[误] He told the truth with the wine courage.
[正] He told the truth with the Dutch courage.

注:以前英国与荷兰关系紧张,所以英语中有很多讥讽荷兰人的说法,此处就是一例。因为英国人曾一度以为荷兰人都受酗酒,所以 Dutch courage 就成了“酒后之勇”的代名词。

303. 我笑得肚子都痛了。
[误] I laughed until my belly ached.
[正] I laughed my head off.

注:在这里,英语表达可够夸张的 ---头都笑掉了!如果说汉语表达还合乎情理,那么这里的英文主要是起修辞效果了。

304. 那好时光却只是昙花一现。
[误] The good days were only the display of broad-leaved epiphyllum.
[正] The good days were only a nine days' wonder.

注:“昙花一现”在中文里是个成语,它在英文中的表达也是约定俗成的。你可以用 a nine days' wonder,也可以用 a flash in the pan,你甚至可以说 last briefly。但象上面的那样的直译却是典型的中式英语,会贻笑大方的。

305. 我那骄傲的邻居居然被三岁小孩愚弄了,真是自己打自己的嘴巴。
[误] My arrogant neighbor was fooled by a three-year-old child. It's really like beating his own face.
[正] My arrogant neighbor was fooled by a three-year-old child, and he had to eat crow.

注:eat drow(吃乌鸦)是个地道的美国口语,它指“做使自己丢脸的事”,如“被迫收回成命或承认错误”等。用在这里既能准确表达愿意,又十分地道。






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306. 要使中国的农民富起来不是短时期内能办到的事。
[误] It is not a matter that can be settled in a short period of time to make Chinese farmers rich.
[正] It is not a matter that can be settled in a short period of time to improve Chinese farmers' living conditions.

注:在英语中,rich 是一种很高的生活水准,要相当富有。很显然,这里的“富起来”远谈不上 rich,只是生活有所提高的意思,即 have some improvement。此处把 rich 换成 better-off 也可以。

307. 经过一年的刻苦钻研,琳达取得了很大成就。
[误] Linda has made great achievements after one year's hard research.
[正] Linda has had/recorded/scored great achievements after one year's hard research.

注:“取得成就”的固定搭配是“have/record/score achievements”,而“make achievements”却不是地道的英文说法,我们常用的是 make progress。

308. 学校是学生学知识的殿堂。
[误] School is a palace where students learn knowledge.
[正] School is a palace where students acquire/attain knowledge.

注:learn 后一般只接具体的学习内容,如 learn English(学英语),learn to play basketball(学打篮球)等。但宽泛的“学知识”不能用 learn,而应用 acquire/obtain knowledge,因为那才是地道的表达。

309. 他向兔子开了枪,但还是让它逃脱了。
[误] He shot the rabbit but it managed to escape.
[正] He shot at the rabbit but it managed to escape.

注:shot 单独用有“射中”或“射死”的意思,用在这里显然前后矛盾。又如:She shot the wolf jumping on her(她射死了扑向她的狼)。shot at 才表示“朝......瞄准”,而不管是否射中。

310. 许多媒体拒绝对这件丑闻发表意见。
[误] Many media refuse to express their opinions on this scandal.
[正] Many media refuse to comment on this scandal.

注:虽然 express one's opinion 和 comment on 都有发表意见的意思,但前者随意,后者正式。又如:Would you please express your opinion on this piece of essay?(能说说你对这篇文章的看法吗?)






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现在开通英语博克!

311. 最终,政府不得不对酒的生产和销售采取强硬政策。
[误] Eventually the government has to apply strong policies to alcohol producing and purchasing.
[正] Eventually the government has to apply tough policies to alcohol producing and purchasing.

注:这种错误源于对词义理解不准确。“强硬”要用 tough 表达,而说一个人强壮应该用 strong。

312. 爱玛省吃俭用,为的是攒钱买书。
[误] Emma saves food and expenses to accumulate more money for books.
[正] Emma lives frugally to save up more money for books.

注:save 是指“省下,把......存起来”。我们常说 save time, save money 等,但“省吃俭用”是指把买食物的钱和其他花费都存下来买书,这显然不能用 save food and expenses 表达,因为英语的 save food 是指“把食物存起来”。

313. 伍德斯先生担心他的客人被风吹病了。
[误] Mr. Woodhouse was afraid that his guests might be blown sick by the wind.
[正] Mr. Woodhouse was afraid that his guests might fall ill because of exposure to the wind.

注:sick 是自己感到不舒服,所以“被风吹病”一说会令英国人觉得很荒谬。

314. 茶树在这片山地上长得很好。
[误] Tea trees grow well in these mountain fields.
[正] Tea grows well in these mountain fields.

注:“茶树”、“果树”等在翻译成英语时常常省略 tree,因为这些词本身就包含“树”的意思。如 orange(橘子树),banana(香蕉树)等。

315. 淡季生意不好做。
[误] It's hard to do business in light seasons.
[正] It's hard to do business in slack seasons.

注:“淡”在英语中往往不用 light 表示。又如:“淡茶”(weak tea),“淡水”(fresh water)等。






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316. 这可是件大事!
[误] This is a big thing!
[正] This is an important matter!

注:big thing 是指“体积大的东西”,而“大事”是指“重要的事情”,它也可以用 major issue 来表达。所以中文的“大”不一定对应英文的“big”,如:“大雾”的表达就是“thick fog”。

317. 该停机检查故障了。
[误] It is time that we stop the machine and find the trouble.
[正] It is time that we stopped the machine and found the trouble.

注:It is time that...表示“是......的时候了”,其后的从句应采用过去时态,这是虚拟语气的要求。

318. 今天我要到叔叔家拜年。
[误] I'll go to visit my uncle and say "Happy New Year" to him today.
[正] I'll pay a New Year call to my uncle today.

注:“拜年”用英文怎么说一定难倒了很多人。第一句译文不是不对,而是没有后一句好。“拜年”还可以被说成 wish sb. a Happy New Year,如:Auntie, we've come to wish you a Happy New Year(大妈,我们给您拜年来了)。

319. 近几年我国的第三产业增长很快。
[误] For the latest couple of years the third industry in our country has been developing very rapidly.
[正] For the latest couple of years the tertiary industry in our country has been developing very rapidly.

注:“第一产业”是 the primary industry,“第二产业”是 the secondary industry,但“第三产业”不是 the third industry,而是 the tertiary industry。其实,tertiary 与 third 是同义的,都是“第三”的意思,这样用只是约定俗成。另外,“第三产业”还可以说成 the service industry,因为第三产业主要指服务业。

320. 适当保持低调是维护好的公众形象的窍门。
[误] To keep an adequately low tone is a tip to maintain good public impression.
[正] To be adequately low-keyed is a tip to maintain good public impression.

注:tone 指“音调”或“口气”,是实指。如:She always speaks with a rising tone(她讲话总是用升调)。而这里的“低调”是“不张扬”的意思,应用 low-keyed 或 low-key。如:The wedding is a very low-key affair/The wedding is very low-keyed(婚礼办得很低调)。






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321. 恭喜发财。
[误] May you become wealthy.
[正] May you be prosperous. /Wish you all the best.

注:“恭喜发财”是句祝福语,不能直译,应按照英语的习惯。

322. 他不得不口是心非地夸她的晚装很漂亮。
[误] He had to say "yes" in the mouth but "no" in the heart when he praised her for her beautiful dress.
[正] He had to say "yes" but mean "no" when he praised her for her beautiful dress.

注:第二句更为地道简洁。

323. 他俩上中学时堕入爱河,那时被别人称作早恋,但十年后他们竟真的结为夫妻了。
[误] They fell in love with each other when they were middle school students, and that was called "early love" by others. But ten years later, they actually get married.
[正] They fell in love with each other when they were middle school students, and that was called "puppy love" by others. But ten years later, they actually get married.

注:“早恋”指未成年男女过早地涉足爱情,它一般被认为是不成熟和不宜提倡的。在英语中,“早恋”的地道说法是 puppy love 或 calf love。如:He is mad about his biology teacher, but it's only puppy love.

324. 这些人情况不同,不能采取一刀切的政策。
[误] These people are in different situations, so we cannot adopt the policy of cutting with one knife in dealing with them.
[正] These people are in different situations, so we cannot adopt the policy of cutting at one stroke in dealing with them.

注:“一刀切”不是使用同一把刀切东西,而是比喻不顾实际情况的不同而采取相同的处理方法。stroke 在这里指一刀切下去的动作,所以用作比喻非常形象。

325. 一次性筷子的用量猛增,加重了环境的负担,也加速了森林的破坏。
[误] Booming use of one-time-only chopsticks increases the burden of our environment and accelerates the destruction of woods.
[正] Booming use of throw-away chopsticks increases the burden of our ecvironment and accelerates the destruction of woods.

注:“一次性”就是“用完就扔”的意思。第一种说法虽然不错,但不符合英语习惯。英语中还有一个词可以表示“一次性”,那就是 disposable,如:disposable syringes(一次性注射器)等。






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326. 摇钱树
[误] money tree
[正] cash cow

注:中文有“摇钱树”之说,而英语中也有 cash cow(产现金的牛)的比喻。这二者虽然一个是“树”,一个是“牛”,但含义却是一样的,而且在各自的语言中都十分地道。

327. 希望工程自创建以来已经帮助了无数的贫困学生。
[误] The Hope Project has helped numerous poor students ever since it was founded.
[正] The Project Hope has helped numerous poor students ever since it was founded.

注:这种专用名词往往有其固定的说法,你在可不必追究为什么“希望”在后,“工程”在前,记住就是了。

328. 无氟冰箱一上市就领导了一场“环保革命”。
[误] No-Freon refrigerator leads an "environmental revolution on its going to the market.
[正] Freon-free refrigerator leads an "environmental revolution" on its going to the market.

注:“无......”一般都译成 free,如:“无烟区”就是 smoke-free zones。

329. 水墨画是一项中国传统艺术。
[误] Water and ink painting is one of Chinese traditional arts.
[正] Ink and wash painting is one of Chinese traditional arts.

注:“水墨画”在英语里的对应说法除了 ink and wash painting,还有 Chinese brush drawing。但 water and ink painting 却是中式英语。

330. 他的身体素质一直很差,终年疾病不断。
[误] He has got very poor physical quality with continuous illnesses all the year round.
[正] He has got very poor physical constitution with continuous illnesses all the year round.

注:虽然“素质”常翻译成 quality,如:Do you think she possesses the necessary managerial qualities to do this job?(你认为她具有从事这个工作所必须的管理素质吗?)但“身体素质”却要用 physical constitution(体格)来表达。






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331. 神州行电话卡在国内使用得很普遍。
[误] The telephone cards of Walking Around Shenzhou are widely used in China.
[正] The Shenzhou pre-paid telephone cards are widely used in China.

注:这也是一个专用名词,有固定的译法。只有平时多留心,注意积累,在翻译这类词语时才不会像狗咬刺猬似地无从下手笔。

332. 公司股票上市以后筹集到了很多资本。
[误] After the stocks going to the market, the company collected a large amount of capital.
[正] After the stocks being listed, the company collected a large amount of capital.

注:普通商品的“上市”可以说 go to the market,但金融领域的“上市”,如公司、股票、证券等的上市却要用 be listed。又如:上市公司(listed companies),上市证券(listed securities)等。

333. 许多公司之间存在着三角债。
[误] There exist triangle debts among many corporations.
[正] There exist chain debts among many corporations.

注:“三角恋爱”可以译成 triangle love,但“三角债”不行。因为很多情况下,三角债都不仅仅牵涉三方,这里的“三”是指“多”,所以不能与英文的 triangle 对应。chain debts 才是正确的英文表达。

334. 不能共患难的朋友
[误] friend who can not suffer with you
[正] fair-weather friend

注:fair-weather 是指“好天气”。我们中国人不也经常用“凄风苦雨”比喻生活中的挫折,而用“风和日丽”来形容人生的坦途吗?所以 fair-weather 在这里是“只能同甘、不能共苦”的意思,而 fair-weather friend 也是原文最地道的英文说法。另外你知道“全天候飞机”怎么说吗?是 all-weather aircraft,意思是无论什么天气都能飞行。

335. 朦胧诗在当时十分流行。
[误] Vague poems were very popular at that time.
[正] Misty poems were very popular at that time.

注:misty 指像隔着一层薄雾一样,隐隐约约地只见轮廓,但看不真切,却给人无限的遐想。它准确表达和肯定了朦胧诗给人的感觉。而 vague 一般指表达不清楚或容易引起歧义的,常含贬义。






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336. 不正之风不能长。
[误] We shouldn't let bad winds develop.
[正] Bad practice should not be promoted.

注:“不正之风”在这里有比喻意义,是“不良风气”和“错误做法”的意思,所以不能翻译成 bad winds,而应译为 bad/harmful practice 或 unhealthy tendency 等。

337. 他这么年轻就已经当上了英语系的副教授。
[误] Young as he is, he has become a vice-professor in English department.
[正] Young as he is, he has become an associate professor in English department.

注:许多人都知道“副总统”叫 vice-president,于是想当然地以为“副教授”就应该是 vice-professor,其实不对。“副”和 vice- 并不总是一一对应的,又如:副产品(by production),副业(side occupation),副作用(by-effect)等。

338. 他们去的时候只有站票了。
[误] There were only standing tickets available when they went there.
[正] There were standing-room-only tickets available when they went there.

注:“站票”不是指票是站着的,而是指持票人只有站的空间,没有坐的位子。所以,正确的译法是 standing-room-only ticket。

339. 君子之交淡如水。
[误] The friendship between gentlemen is as tasteless as water.
[正] The friendship between gentlemen is as pure as crystal.

注:中国人用水来表示纯洁,但英美人习惯用水晶来比喻。而且,tasgeless 在英文中表示淡而无味的,含有贬义,所以直译会令西方人误解。

340. 虎父无犬子。
[误] A father like a tiger will not have a son like a dog.
[正] A wise goose never lays a tame egg.

注:英美人看了第一句译文也许会无知所云,或者感到好笑。而第二个句子与中文的意思大致相同,但却是英语中的地道说法。






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现在开通英语博克!

341. 这件事告诉我们,他并不像我们想象的那样诚实。
[误] This tells us that he is not so honest as we thought.
[正] This shows that he is not so honest as we thought.

注:中文用的是拟人的修辞手法,但在这句话上英国人很较真,他们认为“事情”是不会像人一样开口说话的,只能 show(表明)。

342. 玛丽姨妈最喜欢喝花茶了,所以妈妈让我多带些给她。
[误] Flower tea is Aunt Mary's favorite, so Mom asked me to bring a lot to her.
[正] Scented tea is Aunt Mary's favorite, so Mom asked me to bring a lot to her.

注:“花茶”的地道说法是 scented tea,但有些具体的花茶有它们自己的名称,如“茉莉花茶”就是 jasmine tea。

343. 如果不解决这些人的生活问题,社会就无法安定。
[误] There will be no social stability unless these peopl's living problems have been solved.
[正] There will be no social stability unless these people's daily needs have been met/satisfied.

注:living problems 会让人误以为是“住房问题”,译成problems of livelihood 又太抽象了。其实这里的“解决生活问题”就是满足日常生活的需要,而英语中的 meet/satisfy the daily needs 正是这个意思的地道说法。

344. 换季的时候,商场会推出许多特价品来促销。
[误] On the shifting of seasons, department stores will take out many special-priced goods to promote their selling.
[正] On the shifting of seasons, department stores will take out many bargain goods to promote their selling.

注:“特价品”就是降价促销的商品,而 special-priced goods 没有把其中的意思清楚表达出来。bargain goods 指便宜货,是“特价品”的地道说法。

345. 现在,竹制品越来越多地用于装饰。
[误] Nowadays bamboo-made goods are more and more used as decorations.
[正] Nowadays bamboo-wares are more and more used as decorations.

注:“......制品”,即“用什么原料制成的物品”,在英语中常用 wares 表示,如:brass wares(黄铜制品),glass wares(玻璃制品),wooden wares(木制品)等。






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346. 他掩护他们小组撤退,而且因为这一行动而受到表扬。
[误] He was praised for the act of covering the retreat of his group.
[正] He was praised for the action of covering the retreat of his group.

注: act 指具体、短暂和简单的行为,它侧重于效果,如:He was caught in the act of stealing(他正行窃时被当场抓获)。而 action 指抽象、持续和复杂的行为,它侧重于行为的过程及作用。

347. 睢你像只落汤鸡!
[误] You look like a bedraggled chicken!
[正] You look like a drowned rat!

注:bedraggled 是形容词,指“全身泥污的,湿透的”。第一句是直译,它虽然保留了原文的形象,但不符合英美人的表达习惯。而 a drowned rat/mouse 就十分地道了。

348. 正在做坏事时却被父亲逮到了,他吓得面如土色。
[误] He was caught by his father while doing something bad, and his face turned to the color of earth.
[正] Caught red-handed by his father, he was as white as a sheet.

注:西方人以白种人居多,他们无论受到怎样的惊吓都不会面如土色的,除非生了什么病。所以直译会令他们费解,不如按他们的习惯来说。

349. 免 费入场
[误] free to enter
[正] entrance free

注:entrance free 是英语的固定表达,它相当于 admission free。海报上的 admission/entrance free,就表示人们不用买票就可进场。而 free to enter 则让人觉得“可以随意进出”而无视礼貌。

350. 母细胞和子细胞
[误] mother sells and son cells
[正] parent cells and daughter cells

注:这是约定俗成的用法。






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现在开通英语博克!

351. 人和动物不同,是有理性的。
[误] Man, different from animals, is a rational being.
[正] Man, different from other animals, is a rational being.

注:我们平常所说的“动物”是狭义的,不包括人,而且把人称作动物无异于在骂人。但英语的 animal 却是广义的,包括人,所以上面的句子应该加 other 才严谨、正确。

352. 那天晚上,这男子喝得烂醉如泥,连回家的路都找不着了。
[误] That night, the man was as drunk as mud and even lost his way home.
[正] That night, the man was as drunk as a fiddler and even lost his way home.

注:中文用“稀泥”来形容醉得很厉害,而英文却用“小提琴”来比喻醉汉。据说以前的提琴手所得的报酬是酒而不是钱,因此常常是不醉不归。了解了这一典故以后,这个英语说法也就不难记忆了。

353. 这农民还上诉,简直是以卵击石。
[误] Lodging an appeal, the farmer is no less than hurling an egg against a rock.
[正] Lodging an appeal, the farmer is no less than kicking against the pricks.

注:prick 指“(赶牲畜用的)刺棒”。牲畜挨了打,气得踢那根用来打它的刺棒,这不是明显的自讨苦吃吗?kick against the pricks 来自《圣经》故事,可算是历史悠久,而且与我们的“以卵击石”有异曲同工之妙。

354. 天网恢恢,逃逸了两年之久的罪犯终于落网了。
[误] The web of God is so broad that the criminal who had been away for as long as two years was finally caught.
[正] The mills of God grind slowly and the criminal who had been away for as long as two years was finally caught.

注:“天网恢恢”后面常省略“疏而不漏”,它是指法律的效力无处不在,犯罪分子必将受到惩罚。相同的意思,而英文却用“上帝的磨碾得极慢(但却很细)”来表达。

355. 天完全黑了,可怜的姑娘掩面而泣,不知道去哪里寻找走失的妹妹。
[误] It was completely dark, and the poor girl cried with her face covered, not knowing where to find her lost sister.
[正] It was completely dark, and the poor girl put the finger in her eyes, not knowing where to find her lost sister.

注:“掩面而泣”在英语中有一个固定表达,即 put the finger in one's eyes。它来自莎翁的创造,后来又在许多童谣中被引述,广为流传,并成为习惯用语。






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356. 你不必担心,他是个知道分寸的人。
[误] You can rest assured. He is a man who knows inches and metres.
[正] You can rest assured. He is a man who knows his distance.

注:“分寸”二字在中文里是指“说话或做事的恰当限度”,它译成英文时不可直译。know one's distance 出自莎士比亚的《终成眷属》,而且准确表达了原文的含义。

357. 在这里工作多年,她算是个了解内幕的人,因此告诉了我们许多鲜为人知的故事。
[误] Having worked here for many years, she is one of those who know what goes on behind the scenes, and is able to tell us a lot of things which are unknown to most people.
[正] Having worked here for many years, she is one of those who know the ropes, and is able to tell us a lot of things which are unknown to most people.

注:“内幕”翻译成 what goes on behind the scenes 固然没错,但 know the ropes 更简洁。我们还可以用 know the inside stories 表示相同的意思。

358. 叫他卷铺盖走人吧!
[误] Ask him to roll his quilt and go!
[正] Give him the sack!

注:“卷铺盖走人”和 give sb. the sack 都是“解雇”的意思,即“炒某人的鱿鱼”,而且这两个表达在各自的文化背景中都十分形象。sack 指“袋子”,它表示“解雇”源于17世纪,而且来自法文。属口语用法。

359. 他们的目光相遇了,两人从此坠入了爱河。
[误] Their eyesight met, and they fell in love with each other ever since.
[正] Their eyes met, and they fell in love with each other ever since.

注:“目光”不能用 eyesight 表达,因为 eyesight 只能指“视力”,如:If you eat a lot of fish, you can have good eyesight(多吃鱼会使你的视力好)。而 eye 不仅表示“视力”,还可以指“眼光”。如:a good eye for distance(能看很远的好视力)和 She met his eye across the room(隔着房间,她与他的目光相遇了)。

360. 自古以来人们就知道“伴君如伴虎”。
[误] people have known that accompanying kings is just like accompanying tigers even since the ancient times.
[正] People have known that kings and bears often worry their keepers even since the ancient times.

注:第一句译文西方人未必明白其中的含义,而第二句不仅将原文的意思准确表达出来了,还按照英语的习惯,把君王比作“熊”,十分地道。






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361. 左腿中弹以后,这位勇敢的士兵明白,在获救之前他只能咬紧牙关默默忍受了。
[误] Being shot in the left leg, the brave soldier knew that he had to bite his teeth silently before getting rescued.
[正] Being shot in the left leg, the brave soldier knew that he had to bite the bullet silently before getting rescued.

注:我们用“咬紧牙关”来表达忍受痛苦,而英语中却用“咬住子弹”(bite the bullet)。据说它源于以前战场上条件艰苦,连麻约都没有,接受手术的士兵只有靠咬住子弹来使自己不至于疼得叫出声来。这一说法虽然惨烈了一点,但却具有极强的感染力。

362. 你以为会凭空写出文章吗?你不能做无米之炊,所以还是先去搜集资料吧。
[误] Do you think you could write something out of nothing? You cannot make a meal without rice. So gather some information first!
[正] Do you think you could write something out of nothing? You cannot make bricks without straw. So gather some information first!

注:米饭对西方人来说并不那么重要,所以把“无米之炊”直译成英文他们是无法理解的。英语中地道的说法是拿“砖”和“稻草”做比喻,而且据说还有来自《圣经》的典故呢。

363. 她以前是个传统的中国女孩,可出国一年以后,也已经变成了一个地道的美国人。
[误] She was a traditional Chinese girl before, but after one year abroad, she has become a real American.
[正] She was a traditional Chinese girl before, but after one year abroad, she has become as American as apple pie.

注:“苹果馅饼”是典型的美国食品,用它来表达“地道的美国式”是再合适不过了。需要提醒大家注意的是,这里的 apple pie 虽用单数,但前面却不加冠词,又如:It's as easy as pie(这太容易了)。另外,这里不能用 a real American,因为她毕竟不是美国人。但可以将 real 换成 typical。

364. 这个问题对我们来说虽然困难,但对一个数学专业的学生却易如反掌。
[误] The question, though difficult for us, is as easy as turning over his palm for a mathematics major.
[正] The question, though difficult for us, is as easy as winking for a mathematics major.

注:“易如反掌”在英语中却是“像眨眼睛一样地容易”。它们虽然表达不同,但都贴切得让人叫绝。

365. 虽然是双胞胎,但这两兄弟的性格却截然不同。
[误] Though the two brothers are twins, their dispositions are quite different.
[正] Though the two brothers are twins, their dispositons are as like as chalk and cheese.

注:虽然是“不同”,但却不用 different,而是用 alike(相同的)。chalk 和 cheese 形似而实不同,这看似矛盾的措辞用在这里倒能产生令人难忘的效果。






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366. 在商场混迹多年,这人十分有钱,但却是个铁公鸡。
[误] Being in business for so many years, he has made a lot of money, but he is as mean as an iron cock.
[正] Being in business for so many years, he has made a lot of money, but he is as mean as a louse.

注:louse 指“虱子”或“寄生虫”。这种不生物什么都要从别人身上索取,用它来比喻吝啬也是十分贴切的。

367. 叔叔给他带来了令他惊喜的礼物---一双崭新的皮鞋。
[误] His uncle has brought him a surprising gift---a pair of completely new shoes.
[正] His uncle has brought him a pleasantly surprising gift---a pair of brand new shoes.

注:surprising 只能表达“令人吃惊的”,所以要忠实体现原文意思需要在前面加 pleasantly;“崭新”的地道说法是 brand new。

368. 病人坐在里排的桌前吃饭,大粒的汗从额上滚下,夹袄也贴住了脊心,两块肩胛骨高高凸出,印成一个阳文的“”字。
[误] The patient was sitting at the table by the wall, eating. Beads of sweat stood out on his forehead, his lined jacket was sticking to his spine, and his shoulder blades stuck out so sharply, an "eight" seemed stamped there.
[正] The patient was sitting at the table by the wall, eating. Beads of sweat stood out on his forehead, his lined jacket was sticking to his spine, and his shoulder blades stuck out so sharply, an inverted V seemed stamped there.

注:第一句其实翻译得不错,就是“八”字的英文表达不妥。要知道汉字的书写与英文完全不同,若译成 eight 英国人是不懂的。an inverted V(一个反的英文字母V)就化腐朽为神奇了。

369. 这位老农大概有三四个孩子,而且他们现在都长大成人,可以在地里干活了。
[误] The old farmer has about three or four children, who have now grown up and are able to work in the fields.
[正] The old farmer has three or four children, who have now grown up and are able to work in the fields.

注:汉语可以说“大约有三四个孩子”,但翻译成英语却不行。因为 about 后面不能接约数,而应该接确定的数目。即:要么去掉 about,只用 three or four;要么用 about,但后面接 three 等具体的数字。

370. 每个周末,玛丽都会陪年迈的祖父去看电影。
[误] Every weekend, Mary would accompany her old grandfather to go to the cinema.
[正] Every weekend, Mary would accompany her old grandfather to the cinema.

注:accompany 常被翻译成“陪同”,所以人们在翻译“陪某人看电影”时,会很自然地用 accompany sb. to go to the cinema。其实,查英英词典你就会发现,accompany 的意思不是 together with,而是 go togethr with。所以上述情况中其后的 to go 明显是多余的。






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371. 他又犯了一个拼写错误。
[误] He made another spelling mistake again.
[正] He made another spelling mistake.

注:another spelling mistake 就有“又犯”的意思,所以句中的 again 应该删去。不能因为汉语中有一个“又”字就在英语句子中加 again。

372. 学生们被告知,任何人都不得把这些书籍带出阅览室。
[误] The students were told that anyone was not allowed to take the books out of the reading room.
[正] The students were told that nobody / no one was allowed to take the books out of the reading room.

注:anybody 作主语时,谓语部分使用否定词不符合英语的习惯,应将 anybody 改为 nobody,并将否定词 not 删去。又如:你喜欢的食物没有一种是适合我吃的(Nothing you like agrees with me)。

373. 这是莎士比亚十四行诗的主要特点之一。
[误] This is one of the main characters of Shakespeare's sonnets.
[正] This is one of the main characteristics of Sharkespeare's sonnets.

注:character 是表示某一事物的总体特征(the combination of qualities which make a thing different from others),而 characteristic 则表示事物的具体特征。由此说来,一个事物只有一个 character,但却可以有多个 characteristic。所以在上面的例句中,one of the main characters 是错误的,应该改成 one of the main characteristics。又如:A person's character is always formed in his early years(一个人的性格通常在小时候养成);Carelessness is one of his characteristics(粗心是他的一个特点)。

374. 他在艺术界有极高的地位。
[误] He has occupied a prominent position in the art circle.
[正] He has occupied a prominent position in art circles.

注:circle 表示“......界”时习惯用复数形式,而且前面多不加定冠词,如:cultural/academic/theatrical/business circles(文化/学术/戏剧/商界)。

375. 大赛在即,每个动力员都在努力训练,以期刷新自己以前的纪录。
[误] The game is at hand and every athlete is training hard to improve their previous records.
[正] The game is at hand and every athlete is training hard to improve on their previous records.

注:improve 指“改善,提高”,如 improve one's language ability(提高某人的语言能力)。在英国人看来,以前的纪录(previous records)是既成事实,不可能再加以改变(improve)了,所以应该在 improve 后面加上介词 on,以表示创造新的、更高的纪录。






Knowledge is like a vast and mighty river, collected by countless branches, lt only has beginning, but with no ends.
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