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标题: only的几种特殊用法
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发表于 2006-3-11 10:29  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

only的几种特殊用法

在学习英语的过程中,我们常遇到only与其它词或结构搭配来表达不同的意思,现将这些用法示例如下:

一、only引导的词组或句子放在句首作状语时,通常要用倒装结构。如
Only in this way can you solve the problem.
只有通过这种方式你才能解决问题。
Only if you study hard can you pass the exam.
只有努力学习才能通过考试。
Only then did I realize my mistake.
只有那时我才意识到错了。

二、not only...(but also)出现在句首时,如果架连接的是两个句子,常用倒装。如
Not only did we lose all our money,but we also came close to losing our lives.
我们不仅丢了钱,还差点把命丢了。
Not only did he speak correctly,but he also spoke easily.
他不仅说得准确,而且说得很轻松。

三、only放在不定式前面,常表示不愉快或出乎人们的意料的结果。如
I went all the way to his home only to find hime out at a meeting.
我径直到他家里去,不料发现他出去开会了。
I hurried to the post office only to find it closed.
我匆忙赶到邮局,不料已经关门了。
She went home only to find her house burglarized.
她回到家里,发现房子被盗了。

四、“too...to...”结构中,表示否定意思,但在“only too...to...”结构中,only too = very,表示肯定意思。如
The patient is too weak to walk.
那个病人太虚弱了,走不动。
We are only too willing to do it for you.
我们非常愿意为你做那事。
I am only too delighted to accept your king invitation.
我非常高兴地接受你的邀请。

五、在“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”的结构中,定语从句一般被看作修饰复数名词,谓语要用复数形式。但在“the only one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”的结构中,定语从句却被看作修饰“the only one”,谓语动词要用单数形式。如
This is one of the best novels that have been published in the past two years.
这是近两年出版的最好的小说之一。
He was the only one of the boys who was given a prize.
他是这些孩子中唯一受到奖励的。
She is the only one of the girls who has been to the US.
她是那些女孩中唯一去过美国的。

六、If only 为虚拟语气的一种,表示愿望或一个未实现的条件,多用于感叹句,其主句常常省略。如
If only she would marry me!
她要是能和我结婚该多好!
If only he had known about it!
他那时要是知道这件事该多好!
If only you could have been here earlier that day!
要是你那天再早点到这就好了。
If only there were forty-eighty hours in a day.
要是一天有48个小时就好了。





DON' t  feel life owe you something,you must think how muchyou' ve paid for life.
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发表于 2006-3-11 10:29  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

it 句型大扫描

1. It is + 被强调部分 + that ...   

  该句型是强调句型。将被强调的部分放在前面,其它部分置于that之后。被强调部分可以是主语,宾语,表语或状语。强调的主语如果是人,that可以由who换用。如果把这种句型结构划掉后,应该是一个完整无缺的句子。这也是判断强调句型与其它从句的方法。

It was about 600 years ago that the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.
It was they that (who ) cleaned the classroom yesterday.
It was in the street that I met her father.

2. It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ...

该句型也是强调句型。主要用于强凋时间状语,译成汉语"直到...才...",可以说是 not ... until ... 的强调形式。

It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.
= Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a famous film star.
= I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.

3. It is clear ( obvious, true, possible, certain....) that .....

  该句型中it 是形式主语,真正的主语是that 引导的主语从句,常译为"清楚(显然,真的,肯定...)" 是主语从句最常见的一种结构。   

It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree.   
= That he’s round and tall like a tree is very clear.

4. It is important ( necessary, right, strange, natural...) that ...

  该句型和上一个同属一个句型。由于主句中的形容词不同,that 后的从句中要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should 可以省去。建议记住该句型中的形容词。   

It is important that we (should) learn English well.   
It is necessary that he (should) remember these words.

5. It is said (reported, learned....) that ...

  该句型中的it 仍是形式主语,真正主语是that 引导的主语从句。该结构常译为"据说(据报道,据悉...)"。   

It is said that he has come to Beijing.   
It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit.

6. It is suggested ( ordered ... ) that ...

  该句型和上一个同属一个句型。主句中的过去分词是表示请求,建议,命令等词时,that 后的从句要用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should 可以省。常译为"据建议;有命令...)   

It is suggested that the meeting ( should ) be put off.  
It was ordered that we ( should ) arrive there in two hours.

7. It is a pity ( a shame ... ) that ...

该句型中,that后的从句一般用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should可省去.表示出乎意料,常译为"竟然"。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。

It is a pity that such a thing ( should ) happen in your class.
这种事竟然发生在你们班上,真是遗憾!  
It is a pity that he is ill. 他生病了,真遗憾!

8. It is time ( about time ,high time ) that ...

  该句型中that 后的从句应该用虚拟语气,值得注意的是① 常用过去时态表示虚拟.② 有时也用should + 动词原形,should 不能省。常译为"是(正是)...的时侯..."。   

It is time that children should go to bed.   
= It is time that children went to bed.

9. It is the first ( second ... ) time that ...

  该句型要和上一个句型区别开来。该句型中的 that 从句不用虚拟语气,而用完成时态。至于用什么完成时态,由主句的谓语动词的时态决定。如果是一般现在时,后面从句用现在完成时态;如果是一般过去时,后面从句则用过去完成时态。该结构中 that 可以省去;it有时用 this 替换.常译为"是第一(二)...次..."。

It is the first time I have been here.
= This is the first time I have been here.

10. It is .... since ...

  该句型主要用作处理瞬间动词的完成时,又要和表示一段时间的时间状语连用的问题。主句中是时间作表语,其时态是现在时或完成时,since 引导的从句通常是一般过去时态,而且是瞬间动词。如果主句是一般过去时,从句则用过去完成时。   

It is ( has been ) 5 years since his father died.

11. It is ... when ...

  该句型中的 when 引导的是一个时间状语从句,主句中的 it 指时间,表语由具体的时间充当。常译为"当...的时候,是..."。   

It was 5 o’clock when he came here.

12. It be ... before ...

  该句型主句中的 it 指时间, 主句中的时态常是将来一般时或过去时两种时态.主句中的表语多是long, not long , 3 days , 2 weeks 等表示时间段的词或短语。常译为"...之后..."。

It was 3 days before he went to Beijing.
It will be not long before he finishes his job.

13. It happens (seems, looks, appears ) that...

  该句型中it是形式主语,that 引导的是主语从句,主句中的happen , seem等词是不及物动词.   

It happened ( so happened ) that he met his teacher in the street. 碰巧..  
It seems that he will be back in a few days. 看来...

14. It takes sb. ... to do sth.

  该句型中的不定式是真正的主语,it是形式主语,句型中的直接宾语是时间。常译为"做...要花费某人..."。   

It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall.

15. It is no good (use ) doing sth.

  该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语,主句中的表语可以是no good , ( not any good ) , no use , ( not any use )。   

It is no good learning English without speaking English.

16. It doesn’t matter whether ( if ) ...

  该句型中whether(if) 引导的从句是真正主语,该句型常译为 "不论(是否)...没关系...。    
It doesn’t matter if they are old.

17. It is kind ( of sb. ) to do sth.

该句型中的不定式短语是真正主语,如果不定式的逻辑主语是由 of引起,主句中的形容词必须是能表示逻辑主语特征的形容词。常见的有: bad , brave , careless, clever , cruel , foolish , good (好心的), honest , horrible , kind , lazy , modest , naughty , nice(有教养的), polite, rude , silly , stupid , wise , wrong(错误的)等。 这个句型可以改写为:sb. is kind to do sth.  

It is kind of you to say so.
= You are kind to say so.

18. It is necessary ( for sb. ) to do sth.

  该句型与上一个同属一个句型。如果不定式的逻辑主语是由for引起,主句中的形容词通常是表示重要性,紧迫性,频繁程度,难易,安全等情况的形容词。常见的形容词有:① important, necessary, natural ② easy , safe , common , normal , hard , difficult , dangerous , unusual, rare , impossible , pleasant等。   
在①中的形容词作表语可以用从句改写, 如:   
It is important for her to come to the party.
= It is important that she (should ) come to the party

19. It looks ( seems ) as if ...

  该句型中it无意义。 as if 引导一个状语从句。常译为,"看起来好象..."如果与事实不相符合,则用虚拟语气.

It looks as if he is ill.(真的病了) 
It looks as if he were ill. (没有生病)
It seemed as if he were dying.

20. We think it important to learn a foreign language.

  该句型中的it 作形式宾语。为了记忆方便我们可称该句型为"6123结构"。
  6指主句中常用的动词:think, believe, make, find, consider, feel;
  1指的是形式宾语it;  
  2指的是宾补的两种形式:形容词或名词;
  3指的是真正宾语的三种形式:不定式短语,动名词短语或that引导的宾语从句。  

We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day.  
He felt it important learning English well.  
They found it difficult that they would finish their work in two days.






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:30  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

现在开通英语博克!

主谓一致中的“邻近原则”

英语句子中,主语的“人称”和“数”要限制,决定谓语动词的形式变化,这就叫“主谓一致”关系。

它通常依据三项原则:
1)语法一致; 2)意义一致; 3)就近一致。
【语法一致原则】
I .主语的“人称”决定谓语动词的形式。e.g.
①I love / She loves music . 我/ 她爱好音乐。
②Are your mother a worker ? (误)你母亲是工人吗?
Is your mother a worker ?(正)(主语your mother 是单数第三人称)
II .主语的“数”决定谓语动词的形式。
1.“不可数名词、可数名词单数、单数代词、不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)”或“从句”等作主语,用单数谓语形式。e.g.
①The work is important . 这项工作重要。
②To serve the country is our duty . 为祖国服务是我们的义务。
③How and why he left was a sad story . 他离开的经过和原因是一段伤心的经历。
2. 复数的名词、代词一般接复数谓语形式。e.g.
①The children are taken good care of . 孩子们得到很好的照料。
②They have gone to Chengdu . 他们去成都了。
II. 以“and ”或“both… and”连接的并列主语:
1.通常作复数用 。e.g.
①Plastics and rubber never rot . 塑料和橡胶从不腐烂。
②What he says and what he does do not agree. 他言行不一致。
③Both Tom and I are fond of medicine . 我和汤姆都喜欢医学。
2. 如果并列主语指的是“同一个”人(事、物、抽象概念),作单数用。e.g.
①The worker and writer has come . 这位工人作家来了。
②A cart and horse was seen in the distance . 远处能看见有一套马车。
③Truth and honesty is the best policy . 真诚是最好的策略。
3. “and”前、后的单数词语都有“each,every ,many ,a ,no”等修饰时,仍作单数用。e.g.
①Every boy and every girl enjoys equal rights here.这里每个男孩和每个女孩都享有平等权益。
②No teacher and no student is excused from taking part in the activity .没有哪个教师或学生可以免于参加这项活动。
Ⅳ. 主语前、后加表“数、量”等的修饰语时:
1. a)“many a + 单名 ”接单数谓语:“a good (great ) many + 复名”接复数谓语。e.g.
①Many a fine man has died for it . 许多优秀战士为此献出了生命。
②A great many parents were present at the meeting . 许多家长出席了会议。
b)"a / an + 单名+ or two " 大多接单数谓语: "one or two + 复名"接复数谓语。e.g.
①Only a word or two is (are )needed. 只需说一两句。
②One or two reasoms were suggested . 提出一两条理由。
c)"a / an + 单名+ and a half"常接单数谓语;“one and a half +复名”多接复数谓语。e.g.
①A year and a half has passed . 一年半已过去了。
②One and a half tons of rice are sold . 已卖了一吨半大米。
d) "more than one + 单名"大多接单数谓语。e.g.
①More than one person was (were )absent . 不止一个人缺席。
"more + 复名+ than one "接复数谓语。e.g.
②More students than one have been there . 不止一个学生去过那儿。
"more than two (three,…)+复名 " 接复数谓语。e.g.
③More than one hundred students have attended the concert . 不止一百名学生听了这场音乐会。
2 ,主语前加表示“单位、度量”的短语如“a kind (sort / type / form /pair /cup /glass /piece / load / block / box / handful / quantity / ton / metre /… )of”等时,表示“单位、度量”的这个名词的单复数决定谓语形式。e.g.
a)①There is only a small quantity of paper (books ) left . 只剩下少量的纸(书)了。
②Large quantities of water are needed . 需要大量的水。
b)①This kind of apple is sweet . 这种苹果甜。
②This kind of apples is (are) sweet . (大多依 kind ,作单数用 )
③These kind(s) of apple(s) are sweet . (总作复数用)
但:Apples of this kind are sweet . (总作复数用)
3. 主语后接“with…”等构成的短语修饰成分时:谓语仍须与这类短语前的“主语”一致。可构成这类短语的常用“with ,along with ,together with ,as well as , but , besides , except ,added to , including , like ,no less than , rather than , more than ”等。e.g.
①A woman with two children has come . 一位妇女带着两个孩子来了。
②I as well as they am ready to help you . 不仅他们,我也愿帮助你。
4. "one of + 复数名词+ 定语从句":
1)定语从句的先行词通常是这个“复数名词”,因此从句的谓语用复数形式。e.g.
①This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year . 这是今年出版的最佳小说之一。(关系词“that”代“novels”)
②He was one of the boys who were praised . 他是受表扬的男孩之一。
2)若“one”前加“this, the ,the only ”等时,定语从句的关系词指代one,作从句主语时,接单数谓语。e.g.
He was the only one of the boys who was praaised .他是男孩中唯一受到表扬的。(关系词who 代 the only one )
【意义一致原则(Notional Concord)】
I. 集合名词作主语时:(参见“名词”部分)
1. 有些通常作复数用(不变词形)。如:“people , police , cattle (牛,牲口),folk , youth , militia (民兵)”,等。e.g.
The police have caught the murderer .警方已捕获凶手。
2. 有些指“整体”时作单数,指其中的“成员”时作复数(不变词形)。如 "army , audience(听众),class ,club (俱乐部) ,company(公司), committee(委员会) ,crew ,crowd ,staff(员工) ,family ,public ,government ,group ,party ,union ,couple ,population ,team ."等。e.g.
①Our family is a happy one . 我们有个幸福的家庭。
②The family are early risers . 这家人都起得早。
③The public are (is )requested not to litter . 请公众不要乱扔废弃物。
但上述集合名词也可有复数形式。如:families , two classes .等。有些变复数形式后意义不同。如:peoples多个民族。 youths男青年。 folks亲友。
II. 代词作主语时:(参见“代词”部分)
1. 不定代词"each ,one , much, (a)little ,elther ,neither ,another ,the other(+单名)"等常作单数用。它们所修饰的主语也作单数。e.g.
①Each of the girls (Each girl) has a new hat . 每个女孩都有顶新帽子。
②Neither plan suits me .③Neither of the plans suits / suit me . 两个计划都不适合我。
2. 下列复合不定代词一般作单数用:“someone ,somebody ,something ,anybody ,anyone ,anything ,everybody ,everyone ,eveything ,nobody ,no one ,nothig ”等。e.g.
①Is everybody here ? 都到齐了吗?
②There was nothing special then. 那时没什么特别情况。
3. 下列不定代词作复数用:“(a)few ,many ,several, both”等。e.g.
①Few (of the guests ) were familiar to us . 没几个(客人)是我们熟识的。
②Both / Both (of ) these are interesting . 两部影片都有趣。
4下列代词须视其“具体所指”来决定单、复数:
1)“what ,which ,who ,whose ”等。e.g.
①Who is your brother ?你兄弟是谁?
②Who are League Members .哪些是团员?
2)"all , some ,more ,most ,any ,none ,a lot(of ), lots (of ),"等。e.g.
①All (of the students ) are working hard .(所有的学生)都在用功。
②All (of the paint ) is fine .(这些油漆)都很好。
3)"half(of), plenty (of), the rest(of), (a)part(of), the remainder(of )余下的)",等。e.g.
①Half of the apples are bad .苹果中有一半是坏的。
②Half of the apple is bad .这只苹果坏了一半。






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:31  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
Ⅲ.“数词”、“数量、单位”等词语作主语时:
1. 表示“运算”的数词通常作单数 。e.g.
Ten times four makes(make) forty .+ 乘以四得四十。
2.表“时间、距离、金额、度量衡”等的词语,作“整体”看时作单数用,侧重指“若干单位”时作复数用。e.g.
①Twenty years is not a long time . 二十年光阴,弹指一挥间。
②Twenty years have passed since he left . 他离开已二十个年头了。
3.“分数、百分数”通常依其“具体所指”来决定单、复数。e.g.
①About 40 percent / two-fifths of the books here are (is) worth reading . 这些书中百分之四十/五分之二值得读。
②Only sixty percent / three-fifths of the work was done yesterday .昨天只干完了百分之六十/五分之三的工作。
4. "a number of (许多)/ a varlety of (各式各样) "+复数名词,常作复数用。e.g.
①A number of students in this class are (is) from Sichuan . 这个班有不少同学来自四川。
②There are a variety of toys in this shop.这家商店有各种各样的玩具。
但是,“the number(数目)/ the variety(种类)”+ of + 复数名词,作单数。e.g.
①The number of students in this college has doubled . 这所大学的学生人数翻了一番。
②The variety of goods in this shop is rich . 这家商店货物品种丰富。
Ⅳ.单、复数同形或易混的词作主语时:(参见“名词”部分)
1.以“-ics”结尾的学科名词:指教育、科研的某一学科,作单数。e.g.
Mathematics seems easy to me .我似乎觉得数学不难。
但是,表“具体的学业、活动”等时,多用作复数。e.g.
①Her mathematics are weak . 她数学差。(指“学业成绩、能力”)
②What are your politiscs? 你的政治观点如何?
2. “works工厂,means方法,series系列,species物种,aircraft飞机”等名词单、复数同形,要从上下文判断其具体意义来决定单、复数。e.g.
①This works was(These works were)built two years ago . 这(几)家工厂是两年前修建的。
②Every means has (All means have) been tried . 各种办法都试过了。
这类名词通常还有“fish ,deer ,sheep ,headquarters (总部驻地),bellows(风箱), plastics, gallows (绞架), manners(礼貌) ,whereabouts (行踪), ”等。(但news(消息)是不可数名词,通常只作单数用。)
Ⅴ. "the + 形容词/分词"作主语时:
1. 指“一类”人或事物时,常用作复数用。e.g.
①The English speak English. 英国人讲英语。
②The rejected were heaped in the corner . 废品堆在角落里。
2.指“某一个”人,或“抽象的”事物时,作单数用。e.g.
①The deceased was his father . 去世的是他父亲。
②The agreeable is not always the useful . 好看的不一定中用。
③The new and progressive always wins over the old . 新生、进步的事物总是要战胜旧的东西。
Ⅵ.专用名词作主语时:
1.“书名、剧名、报刊名、国家名”等通常作单数用。e.g.
①The United States was founded in 1776. 美国成立于1776年。
②The Arabian Nights is very interesting . 《天方夜谭》很有趣。
2.“书刊名”有时作单数或复数两可,尤其是编成集子的书。e.g.
Dickens' Amerian Notes were (was ) published in 1842 .
狄更斯所著的《美国笔记》出版于1842年。
Ⅶ“what等引导的从句”作主语时:
1. 大多作单数用。e.g.
①What we need is more practice . 我们需要的是更多的实践。
②What he says doesn't agree with what he does . 他言行不一致。
2.若从句是含复数意义的并列结构、或“表语”是复数时,谓语动词用单数或复数两可。e.g.
①What you say and think is /are no business of mine . 你怎么说以及怎么想,不关我的事。
②What he bought was /were some books . 他所买的是几本书。
【就近一致原则(Proximity)】
也称“邻近原则”,即:谓语与靠近的名词、代词(有时不一定是主语)在“人称、数”上一致。
I.在正式文体中:
1.由下列词语连接的并列主语:"or ; either …or;nor; neither…or;whether…or;not…but; not only…but also" ; 等。e.g.
①What he does or what he says does not concern me . 他的行为或言谈都与我无关。
②Neither you nor I am wrong . 你和我都没错。
③Not you but your father is to blame . 不是你,而是你父亲该受责备。
④Not only you hut(also) he is wrong .不仅你错了,他也错了。
2. 在倒装句中:谓语可与后面第一个主语一致。e.g.
①In the distance was heard the clapping of hands and the shouts of the people . 在远处,能听见鼓掌声和人们的呼喊声。
②There is (are) a pen and some books on the desk .桌上有一支钢笔和几本书。
II. 非正式文体中:
有时依“就近一致原则”,但也可依“意义一致原则”或严格地依“语法一致原则”。e.g.
Neither she nor I were there (意义一致) 我和他当时都不在那儿。(非正式)
Neither she nor I was there .(就近一致)(译文同上句)(正式)
但是,如果依“就近一致原则”而与其他两项原则相矛盾时,则常常认为是不太合符规范的。e.g.
No one except his own supporters agree with him .仅他自己的支持者同意他的意见。(依“就近”和“意义”一致的原则;但语法上,“No one ”才是主语,谓语要改成“agrees”。“写作中”一般要依“语法一致”原则。





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发表于 2006-3-11 10:32  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

不能用关系代词 Which 的几种情况

1.当先行词为all, little, much, few, everything, none 等不定代词时关系代词用that而不用which. I will tell him all that you told me at the ball.
There are few books that you can read in this book store.

2.当先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that, 不用which.
He asked about the factories and workers that he had visited.

3.当先行词有形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词用that, 而不用which.
This is the best novel that I have ever read.
Guilin is one of the most beautiful cities that I have ever visited.

4.当先行词有序数词修饰时,关系代词用that, 不用which.
The first sight that was caught at the Great Wall has made a lasting impression on him. 5.当先行词被the only, the very, the same, the right等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which.
That is the very thing that we can do.
It is the only book that he bought himself.

6.当先行词被all, every, any, much, little, few, no等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which.
You can take any room that you like.
There is no clothes that fit you here.

7.当主句是以which开头的特殊问句时,定语从句关系代词一般用that而不用which.
Which of the books that had pictures was worth reading?

8.在强调句型" It is ... that ..." 中,只用that,不用which.
It is in this room that he was born twenty years ago.

9.在" such (the same) ... as ..." 句型中,关系代词要用as, 而不用which.
We need such materials as (not which) can bear high temperature.

10.表示" 正如... 那样 "," 正象..." 之意时, 用as, 不用which.
Mary was late again, as had been expected.

11.As 引导的定语从句可以放在主句前面, 也可以放在主句后面或主句中间,而由 which引导的定语从句只能放在主句后面。
As we all know, oceans cover more than 70% of the earth.
used to/be used to的分别
  used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。
  Mother used not to be so forgetful.  
  Scarf used to take a walk.  (过去常常散步)
be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。
  He is used to a vegetarian diet.  
  Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)
used to 的用法
否定式简写为usedn't) 过去经常,以前常常
We used to go there every year. (我每年都去那儿。)
He is not what he used to be.
他已不是旧日的他了。
我们公司过去和他们的公司常有业务往来。
This used to be a shabby house. (此房年久失修)
used to,would这两个词语都可以表示过去常做某事,有时可以换用。
used to do 强调整过去习惯性的行为或状态,但是现在没有这种行为或状态了。因此,这个短语的内涵是今昔对比。






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:33  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

学习被动语态的几个问题

 被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,表示句子中的主语是动作的承受者,汉语往往用“被”、“受”、“给”等词来表示被动意义。《大学英语自学教程》系统讲解了被动语态的构成、基本句型以及用法,考生们在学习这一语法现象时,还应注意以下几个方面,以免在实际运用中出现差错。

一、主动形式表示被动意义

  英语的被动意义除了用及物动词的被动语态形式表示外,还可以用其他方法来表示,就像在汉语中并非一定要用“被”字来表示的被动意义一样。

  1、用某些不及物动词表示被动意义,如carry,cut,drive,iron,keep,lock,open,pick,read,sell,shut,tear,wash,wear,write等等。这类动词既能作及物动词,也能作不及物动词。作不及物动词时,形式上虽为主动,却表示被动意义。例如:

Meat cuts easily.肉容易切。

His novel sells well.他的小说畅销。

The car drove easily.这车很容易开。

Your pen writes quite smoothly.你的笔写起来很滑。

在上述句子中,主语通常指物,起动作承受者的作用,也可以说是不及物动词的逻辑宾语。但是有时也有用人称主语的。例如:

The girl does not photograph well.这女孩不上像。比较:The girl has not been photographed well.这女孩的照片没拍好。

2、某些感觉动词的主动态表示被动意义。例如:

This shirt feels much softer than that one.这件衬衫比那件衬衫摸起来柔软得多。   That book smells old.那本书有一股霉味。

These oranges taste nice.这些橙子味道很好。

  以上这些动词都不能用进行时表示。若用进行时,则表示主动含义。比较:The child is smelling the paint.小孩正在闻油漆的气味。

3、有少数动词(bind,cook,do,owe,print)的进行时有时有被动意义。在这种用法中,句子的主语都应该是指物的。例如:

The magazine is binding(printing).这本杂志正在装订(印刷)。   

He paid all that was owing.欠的钱他都还了。   

The meat is cooking.正在火敦肉。   

4、动词get,come,go之后接过去分词,表示被动意义。get的这种用法局限于口语和非正式的书面语言,更强调动作的结果而非动作本身,并常用来表示突发性的、出乎意料的偶然事件。而come和go常接含否定意义的过去分词。例如:   

After working selflessly in here for several years,Mr Li got promoted at last.李先生在此地无私地干了好几年,终于得到提升。   

They got delayed because of the holiday traffic.由于节日交通阻塞,他们被耽误了。  The buttons on my coat came undone.我上衣的扣子松开了。   

The woman's complaints went unnoticed.那位女士的投诉无人理睬。  5、在need(want,require,deserve,etc.)doing句型中,动名词(doing)相当于动词不定式的被动式(to be done),在意思上没有多大差别。例如:   

The garden needs watering.?The garden needs to be watered.花园需要浇水。   The problem requires studying with great care.?The problem requires to be studied with great care.这个问题需要仔细研究。

These jobs want doing at once.?These jobs want to be done at once.这些工作需要马上就做。

  用法相似的结构还有bear doing,stand doing,be worth doing,习惯不用动词不定式。如: That won't bear thinking of.那是不堪想像的。   

The little girl can't stand criticizing.小女孩经不起批评。   

The food is not worth eating.这种饭菜不值一吃。   

It's well worth making the effort to learn how to do it.很值得花一番功夫去学会怎么做这事。

  值得注意的是,在be worth doing句型中,只能用动名词的主动式,而在be worthy to be done中,才能用动词不定式的被动式,两者不可混淆。   6、在某些性质形容词+动词不定式的句型中,其动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。例如:   

The question is easy to answer.这问题容易回答。  

That book is difficult to understand.那本书难懂。   

在这种句型结构中,动词不定式和主语的关系实际上是一种逻辑上的动宾关系,可以说是动词不定式作主语变换来的,相当于It's easy to answer the question.和It's difficult to understand that book.由于把动词宾语放在主语位置,所以和不定式的关系构成一种被动关系。   

7、有些动词不定式不论用主动形式还是被动形式,动词不定式和主语的关系都是被动的。例如:   

Nobody was to blame (to be blamed) for the accident.这个事故,谁也不能责怪。  The house is to let (to be let).这房子出租。   

There are a lot of books to read (to be read).有许多书要读。   Those cars are to rent (to be rented).那些汽车出租。   

8、以-able或-ible结尾的形容词可表示被动意义。例如:   These tickets are available for one month.?These tickets are capable of being used for one month.这些票可用一个月。   

It's a credible explanation.?The explanation can be trusted.这是一种可信的解释。 The fish was hardly eatable.?The fish could hardly be eaten.这鱼几乎不能吃。   9、有些介词短语用作表语或定语时,可以表示被动意义。例如:   

The thief is under arrest.?The thief has been arrested.小偷已被捕。

Apples are on sale.?Apples are being sold.苹果在出售。

The phenomenon under study is very interesting.?The phenomenon which is being studied is very interesting.正在研究的现象十分有趣。

10、在冠词the和a (an)后面只能用动名词的主动形式,这种名词化的动名词有时表示被动意义。例如:

The boy took a beating.那男孩挨了打。   

It was spoilt in the making.这东西在制作过程中被损坏了。   

11、在某些名词词组中,表示动作的名词无疑具有动作的含义,往往可以表现被动意义,而这种被动意义与英语的被动结构无任何语法上的联系。例如:   

After his release from prison,he returned home.他从监狱被释放出来以后回到了家。 His family lived on government aid for three years.他一家靠政府救济生活三年了。






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:34  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
二、语态转换和某些动词的关系   

1、一般以为凡及物动词都有相应的被动句,其实不然,当“主 动 宾”结构的谓语动词是表示状态或特征的及物动词,如contain,cost,fit,have,lack,resemble,suit等,主动句便没有相应的被动句:

Linda resembles her mother.琳达象她母亲。

This red coat becomes her.这件红上衣合她的身。

The auditorium holds 2000 people.大礼堂能容纳两千人。

My shoes don't fit me.我的鞋不合脚。

Jack always lacks confidence.杰克总是缺乏信心。   

但是,状态动词know有相应的被动态:Experts have been known to make this mistake.大家知道,专家也会犯这种错误。   有时,有些不能用于被动语态的状态动词,在同一意义上,如果不用by-词组,可以有被动句。如:All my things are held in this box.这只箱子里装着我所有的东西。   



2、某些被动句没有相应的主动句。例如:   

She was born in Nanjing.她生于南京。   

He was said to be an honest man.据说他是个老实人。   

They will be married next month.他们将于下月结婚。   

Mary said that she was not obliged to work overtime.玛丽说她并不是非加班不可。  



3、当“主 动 宾”结构的宾语为反身代词或相互代词时,通常不能转换为被动句。例如:  The doctor dedicated herself to finding a cure.这位医生为寻求一种治疗方法奉献了她的一生。

Did he hurt himself when he fell?他跌倒时有没有摔伤了自己?   

We could hardly see each other in the fog.在雾中我们彼此几乎看不见。

They told each other about their families.他们互相向对方讲述了各自的家庭情况。



4、用于被动语态的have。 动词have作为“有”的意思时,是状态动词,没有相应的被动态。但是在下列情况中,have有被动语态。

a、作为“被买到(得到)”、“被找到”意思时:

We tried to get a copy of her book,but there was none to be had(to be bought).我们想弄到一本她的书,但就是买不到。

That is about the only work to be had(=to be found) at this time of the year.那大概就是今年此时唯一能找到的工作了。

b、作为“欺(哄)骗”意思时,口语中常用被动态:

I'm afraid you've been had.恐怕你上当了。

He's not the first person that's been had in that way.他并非第一个这样上当受骗的人。

c、作“被贿赂”意思时:   The man was had (=was bribed) into giving them the documents.这人被贿赂,给他们提供了文件。

d、与某些介词或副词构成短语动词时,相当于一个及物动词:

I've been had on (=have been fooled) too often to take his stories seriously.我时常上他的当,不再把他的话当真了。

The young man was had up (=was taken to court)for dangerous driving.这年青人因危险驾车被法庭传讯。

5、有些原来不及物的动词,如果作使役动词来用,那么有被动语态,较常见的有fly,run,stand,walk等。例如:

Many cars have been flown to Europe.许多汽车已被空运到欧洲去了。

This bottle must not be stood close to the fire.这只瓶不得放在近火处。

Horses should be walked for some time after a race.赛马后,得溜一会儿马。



三、被动语态结构与SVC(动词-ed形式作表语)结构的区别

被动语态表示动作,句子主语为动作的对象,SVC结构表示主语的特点或所处的状态,其中的过去分词相当于形容词,be只有一般时态和完成时态。被动结构的时态一般要与相应的主动结构一致。下面把这两种结构作一比较:

1、The library is usually closed at 6.图书馆通常六点关门。(被动语态)

The library is now closed.图书馆关门了。(SVC结构)

2、The bridge was completed in 1968.桥是1968年建成的。(被动语态)

  The bridge is completed.桥已修好。(SVC结构)   

3、The glass was broken by my sister.玻璃杯是我妹妹打破的。(被动语态)

  The glass is broken.玻璃杯破了。(SVC结构)



为了便于考生们的理解,我们再举几个SVC结构的例句:

The gun is loaded.枪装上子弹了。

Your composition is well written.你的作文写得很好。

The door is locked.门锁着。

He was injured in the leg.他腿部受了伤。



综上所述,英语被动语态值得注意的问题很多,我们在学习时,不能仅仅依赖于语法分析,还要多注意上下文以及句子的内含意义,这样才能更好地理解和运用这一语法现象。





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发表于 2006-3-11 10:35  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

不同词序带来的不同语义

在中文里,词序非常重要;两个字的秩序不同,意思也不同。例如“东西”和“西东”,前者是“things”,后者是“everywhere” ——“各奔西东”。再如“女儿”和“儿女”,前者是“ daughter(s)”,后者是“children”。


  英语的词序虽不像中文那样富有语义上的变化,但也很重要,绝对不容忽视。有时,一字一词方位的改变,全句的意思可能“牵一发动全身”,跟着受影响。

  下面便是些好例子:

  ① Even the government officers admitted that some tax measures were unfair.

  ② The government officers admitted that even some tax measures were unfair.

  第一句的意思是:每个人,包括政府官员,都承认有些税务措施不公平。第二句的意思是:政府官员承认,许多事情,连税务措施在内,都不公平。前者焦点在“人”;后者则在“事”。

  ③ The couple don‘t have much money to spend on their foreign trip.

  ④ The couple don‘t have to spend much money on their foreign trip.

  第三句说“钱不够用”;第四句却说“不必多用钱”。“没有钱可花”和“有钱不必多花”,呈强烈对照,词序的影响,由此可见一斑!

  ⑤ The committee as a whole pointed out that the world economic situation had improved.

  ⑥ The committee pointed out that the world economic situation as a whole had improved.

   第五句指的是“全部的委员”;第六句却影射“整体的经济局势”。同样一个片语,
所指有所不同。

  ⑦ In vain did David try to prevent the job from being done.

  ⑧ David tried to prevent the job from being done in vain.

   ⑦里的“in vain”(无结果)指的是大卫的行动;⑧里的不是指人的行动,而是指“在进行中的工作”。

  ⑨ Approaching the shop, Helen noticed two strangers.

  ⑩ Helen noticed two strangers approaching the shop.

  ⑨里讲的是“海伦走向银行时,注意到两个陌生人”;⑩里指的是“两个陌生人走向银行时,引起海伦的注意”。

  (11) I may visit a sometime lecturer of English language.

  (12) I may visit a lecturer of English language sometime.

  (11)里的“sometime”是形容词,意思是“以前的”;(12)里的“ sometime”是时间副词,意思是“某时候”。前者可以改成“former ”或“previous”;后者就要变为“at a certain time”了。

  最后,请问下列二词,哪个是“防暴警察”?哪个是“警察暴动”?

  A: RIOT POLICE

  B: POLICE RIOT

Answer: A 防暴警察






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:36  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

现在开通英语博克!

貌似动词而非动词的边缘介词

边缘介词(Marginal Prepositions)指的是那些在语法功能上与介词相似的词。本文所要介绍的是那些貌似动词却非动词的边缘介词。与一般介词不同的是,这类介词的词形较特别:除少数词以动词原形出现以外,大多数词为分词形式。由于其独特的词形,加上一般语法书上又没有给出详尽的用法说明及例句,人们往往很难将这些词同介词联系在一起。事实上,作为一种较为特殊的介词,它们同样具有一般介词所具有的某些语法功能,在现代英语中的运用也并不少见。例如《大学英语》第一册中有这样的一个句子“...with more dignity than I would have thought possible considering his appearance.” 句中的“considering”就是一个十分常见的边缘介词。对于每个英语学习者来说,了解并掌握一些类似的边缘介词是很有必要的。这里,我向读者介绍一些常见的类似动词的边缘介词。

  一、 形似现在分词的边缘介词

  英语中,绝大多数类似动词的边缘介词都为现在分词形式,其中最为常见的有以下一些:

  1.barring(不包括,如果没有):

  Barring special circumstances, the plane will arrive on schedule.

  如无特殊情况,飞机将准时到达。

  2.concerning(关于,就……来说):

  We had several discussions concerning the matter.

  关于这事,我们已讨论好几次了。

  3.considering(鉴于,就……而论):

  Considering his age, he writes quite well.

  以他的年龄来看,他写得相当不错。

  4.excepting(除……之外),该词用于句首或not,without,always之后。

  Everyone helped, not excepting John.

  每个人都帮了一把,连约翰也不例外。

  5.failing(如果在……中失败,如果没有):

  Failing specific instructions, use your own judgment.

  如无具体指示,请自行酌办。

  6.pending(直到),此词为正式用语。

  This matter must wait pending his return from Europe.

  这件事要等到他从欧洲回来后再说。

  7.regarding(关于),此词为正式用语,常用于商业信函中。

  Yesterday, we had a spirited discussion regarding the future of the reform.

  昨天,我们就改革的前途进行了一番热烈的讨论。

  8.respecting(关于,至于):

  I'm at a loss respecting his whereabouts.

  关于他的下落,我一无所知。

  9.touching(关于,提到),该词用于正式语体或书面语。

  Touching the case, I suggest that we should go to ask the litigant.

  关于这个案子,我建议我们去问问当事人。

  10.wanting(没有):

  Wanting courage, victory is impossible.

  没有勇气,就不可能取得胜利。






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二、形似过去分词及形同动词原形的边缘介词

  这类介词为数不多,最常用的有以下几个:

  1.given(考虑到):

  Given the present conditions, I think she's done rather well.

  考虑到目前的条件,我认为她做得相当不错了。

  2.granted (that)(假定,即使):

  Granted (或Granting) that she should come to lend you a hand, it doesn't mean she will.

  即使她应该来帮你一把,也并不意味着她会这样做。

  3.bar(除……之外):

  We'll come on time bar(或barring)traffic delay.

  除非路上堵车,我们将准时到达。

  4.save(除……之外),此词为正式用语。

  The screen was all dark save for one bright spot.

  除了一个光点之外,屏幕上一片黑暗。

  从以上所给例句中,我们不难看出,这类介词同样具有一般介词的语法功能,它们在句中主要用作状语或在名词短语之后作后置修饰语。有一点需要说明的是,有些以分词形式出现的词,除了有边缘介词的功能以外,还有其他一些功能,如连接词的功能,这就非本文所讨论的范围了。






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:37  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

现在开通英语博克!

怎样分辨would与used to在用法上的异同

Would与used to都可用来表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作,常常可以换用。如:
(1)When we were boys we used to/would go swimming every summer.
小时候,每到夏天我们都要去游泳。
(2)He used to/would spend every penny he earned on books.
过去,他通常把挣来的钱全花在买书上。
Would与used to都不能用来表示动作发生的具体频度或具体的一段时间。例如,不能说:
(3) I would/used to go to France six times.
(4)He used to live in Africa for twenty years.
上两句应改成:
(5)I went to France six times. 我去过法国6次。
(6)He lived in Africa for twenty years. 他在非洲住过20年。
Would与used to的区别主要有以下几点:
a. Used to可指过去的状态或情况,would则不能。如:
(7)School children used to know the story of how Abraham Lincoln walked five miles to return a penny he'd overcharged a customer.(不能用would)
过去,学校的孩子们都知道亚伯拉罕·林肯怎样步行5英里退还多收顾客1便士的故事。
(8)Yet,he cannot but remember China as it used to be.然而,他不会不记得旧日的中国(不能用would)。
b. Would表示反复发生的动作。如果某一动作没有反复性,就不能用 would,只能用 used to。例如:
(9) And from that day on, as soon as the table was cleared and the dishes were gone. Mother would disappear into her sewing room to practice.
从那天起,只要碗盘撤掉、饭桌一清理干净,妈妈就马上躲进做针线活的房间练习起来。(具有反复性)
(10)I used to live in Beijing. 我过去住在北京。(没有反复性)
c. Used to表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作或状态现在已经结束,would则表示有可能再发生。如:
(11)People used to believe that the earth was flat.
过去,人们总以为地球是扁平的。(现在已不再这样认为)
(12)He would go to the park as soon as he was free.
过去,他一有空就去公园。(现在有可能再去)
注意:used to的否定式和疑问句:
(13)过去我不喜欢歌剧。
I used not to like opera.
I usedn't to like opera.
I didn't use to like opera.
(14)过去你喜欢歌剧吗?
used you to like opera?
Did you use to like opera?
(15)Didn't you use to like opera? 你过去不喜欢歌剧吗?
(16)You used to like opera, didn't you? 你过去喜欢歌剧,是吗?
(17)There used to be a church here, usedn't there? 过去这里有座教堂,是不是?






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发表于 2006-3-11 10:38  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 

英语主语和谓语动词在数方面的一致关系

一、主谓一致

主谓一致有许多原则,概括起来不外乎三种一致原则,即语法形式一致,概念一致(语言内容上一致),毗邻一致(谓语动词的单复数形式和紧位于其前的主语一致)。

1. 语法形式一致

(1)单数主语、单个动词不定式、动名词短语以及句子作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语,用and或both…and连接的动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及主语从句作主语,谓语动词则用复数形式。例如:

1) The performance was very funny.

2) Serving the people is my great happiness.

3) Whether we’ll go depends on the weather.

4) Many natural materials are becoming scarce.

5) Both you and I are students.

6) What I think and what I seek have been fairly reflected in my paper.

注1:在what 引导的主语从句中,如果主语补语是复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

What we have to learn are the pieces of language that produce inversion.

注2:修饰语对主语的数不起影响。例如:

The performance of the first three clowns was very funny.

(2)由as well as, with, along with, like, together with, rather than, except, but, including, accompanied by, plus, besides, in addition to, no less than 等引起的结构跟在主语后面,不能看作是并列主语,该主语不受这些词组引导的插入语的影响,主语如是单数,其谓语动词仍然用单数形式。例如:

1) My mother, as well as my father, has a key to the office.

2) The man together with his wife and children sits there watching TV.

3) His sister no less than you is wrong.

4) The reading course book, plus its reference books, is helpful to college students.

注:有时在with结构里,加上both之后,with就具有and含义。例如:

Grandpa Wang with his son, both looking very happy, are taking a walk in the park.

(3)有些代词只能指单数可数名词,当它们在句子中作主语时,尽管在意义上是多数,谓语动词仍要用单数形式。这类代词有either, neither, each, one, the other, another, somebody, someone, something, anyone, anything, anybody, everyone, everything, everybody, no one, nothing, nobody等。例如:

1) Neither likes the friends of the other. (两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。)

2) Everything around us is matter. (我们周围的所有东西都是物质。)

(4)在neither of与either of的结构里,一般语法书都认为谓语动词可用单数形式也可用复数形式,但在美国的TOEFL考试内要求用单数形式。例如:

1) Neither of them was in good health, but both worked very hard.

2) Has either of them been seen recently?

(5)当and连结的两个名词是指同一个人或同一件事,and后的名词前没有冠词,谓语动词应该用单数形式;在and后面的名词前有冠词,谓语就用复数形式。例如:

1)The bread and butter is served for breakfast. (早饭供应黄油面包。)

2)The bread and the butter are on sale. (正在出售黄油和面包。)

(6)当one of, a portion of, a series of, a species of, a chain of 结构作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)One of those students has passed the examination.

2)A series of pre-recorded tapes has been prepared for language laboratory use.

(7)form of, type of, kind of 结构的谓语视form, type与kind的单复数而定.these/those kind/type of后是复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

1) The kind of books an author writes depends on the kind of man who he is.

2) Some new types of cars are now on show.

3)These kind of recorders are good.

(8)由one and a half + 复数名词作主语时,谓语动词视名词的单复数形式而定。例如:

One and a half apples is left on the plate.

(9) 由the majority of + 名词作主语时,谓语动词视名词的单复数形式而定。例如:

1) The majority of the damage is easy to repair.

2) The majority of criminals are non-violent.

(10)plenty of, half of, a lot of, lots of, heaps of, loads of, scads of等 + 可数与不可数名词作主语时,不可数名词的谓语只用单数,可数名词的谓语视可数名词的单复数而定。例如:

1)Half of this building is to be completed by spring.

2)Half of the buildings have been painted completely.

3)There is plenty of water in the pail.

4)There are plenty of eggs in the box.

5)There is loads of milk on the farm.

6)There are loads of big red apples on the ground.

注:当名词前有其他量词修饰时,谓语动词的单复数形式通常取决于量词。例如:

1)Row upon row of soldiers is marching towards us on the field.

2)A body of volunteers has been organized to aid the helpless in their struggle for survival.

(11)由all of, most of, a lot of, some of, none of, plenty of , the rest 等 + 名词作主语时,谓语动词的单数形式应与名词一致。例如:

1)None of the books satisfy the students.

2)None of this meat is fit to eat.

3)All of the research work was designed by the chief engineer.

4)All of the students are against the plan for an outing at this time of the term.

(12)由more than one (或more than one + 单数名词),many a + 单数名词作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)More than one student has passed the examination.

2)Many a boy learns to swim before he can read.

注:如果more than后面是复数名词,则谓语动词要用复数。

例如:More than two hundred students have attended the lecture.

(13)quantity of + 不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式; quantities of + 可数与不可数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

1)Great quantities of milk are needed in this city.

2)There is a large quantity of milk.

(14)如果名词词组中心词是“分数或百分数 + of + 名词”,谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于of后的名词或代词的单、复数形式。例如:

1)Over three-quarters of the swampland has been reclaimed.

2)Two-thirds of the people present are against the plan.

(15)定语从句谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词一致。例如:

1)He is one of the men who were chosen to represent the group.

2)“Keep cool” is the first of the rules that are to be remembered in an accident.

注:当one之前有the only等限定词修饰时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.






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现在开通英语博克!

2.概念一致(语言内容上一致)

(1)有些集合名词如crowd, family, team, orchestra(管弦乐队), group, government, committee, class, school, union, firm, staff, public等,它们作主语时,谓语动词的数要根据语言内容而定。如果它们作为一个集体单位时,动词用单数形式,如就其中的各个成员来说,则谓语用复数形式。例如:

1)His family is going to move.

2)His family are very well.

3)The public is / are requested not to leave litter in the park.

注:如这类词后跟有定语从句时,定语从句的谓语动词也遵循概念一致的原则,强调具体成员时,谓语动词用复数,关系代词用who; 强调整体时,谓语动词用单数,关系代词用which。例如:

1)The government who were responsible for this event attempted to find a solution.

2)The government which was responsible for this event attempted to find a solution.

(2)有些表示总称意义的名词,形式上是单数,而意义上却是复数,谓语动词要用复数形式,如people, police, militia, cattle, poultry(家禽)等。例如:

1)Cattle were allowed to graze on the village common.

2)The police are searching for a tall dark man with a beard.

(3)有些名词形式上是复数,而意义上却是单数。如news, means, works.还有许多以ics结尾的学科名称,如economics, physics, mechanics, politics等,它们作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)Politics is a complicated business.

2)Here is the news.

(4)用and连接的单数主语,前面有each, every, many a, no等修饰时,谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语与each连用时,应不受each的影响,谓语动词仍用复数形式。例如:

1) Each pen and each paper is found in its place.

2) Every boy and girl is treated in the same way.

3) Many a boy and many a girl has seen it.

4) The old workers and the young each have their own tools.

(5)表示重量、度量、衡量、价值的复数名词作主语,谓语动词常用单数形式。例如:

1) Twenty miles is a long way to walk.

2) Three pints isn’t enough to get me drunk.

(6)国家、单位和书报的名称,作为一个单一的概念,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)War and Peace is the longest book I’ve read.

2)General Motors has recently closed down a plant. (通用汽车公司最近关闭了一家工厂。)

(8)the +形容词作主语时,如主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数形式;如果指的是单个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

1) The blind are taught trades in special schools.

2) The departed was a good friend of his.






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3.毗邻一致(就近原则)

(1)由连词or, neither…or, either…or, not only … also, nor等连接的并列主语,谓语动词的单复数形式按毗邻一致的原则,与贴近它的主语一致。例如:

1) He or you have taken my pen.

2) Either you or he is no telling the truth.

3) Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been changed.

(2)在there be 的结构中,谓语动词的单复数形式一般也采取就近原则。例如:

1)There is a desk and four benches in the office.

2)There are two chairs and a desk in the office.

二、指代一致

指代一致是指句中的代词应该在人称、数、性等方面与所指的词保持一致。

1.人称一致

(1)当代词指代名词或另一个代词时,须在人称上与所指代的词保持一致。例如:

1)I recognized one of the girls, but I didn’t speak to her.

2) That woman said that she was over fifty.

3) They asked whom they should apply to.

(2)当代词指代集合名词时,用单数人称代词强调整体,用复数人称代词强调个人。例如:

1) The committee have discussed their report on the disaster.

2) The audience are raising their hands to signify their approval.

(3)当everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody等作主语时,相应的代词一般采用单数形式。例如:

1) If anyone calls, tell him I’ll be back later.

2) Everyone thinks he is the center of universe.

注:在非正式文体中,特别是在会话体里,常用代词的复数形式是为了故意不具体说出所指的那个人的性别。例如:

1) Has anybody brought their camera?

2) No one could blamed themselves.

(4)由neither … nor, not only … but also, either … or, not … but, or等连结的并列主语,其后的附加疑问部分主语用复数代词。例如:

1) Neither you nor I am wrong, are we?

2) Both Tom and Jack came, didn’t they?

2.性、数、格一致

(1)代词的性一般仅限于第三人称。例如:

1) China will always do what she has promised to do.

2) The boy stood at the door with his hat in his hand.

(2) 当or或nor连接阳性名词或阴性名词时,代词一般和近者保持一致。例如:

1) Neither John nor Mary has got what she wanted.

2) If you should see Mary or Thomas, tell him the news.

(3)单数名词由and连接时,相应的代词一般用复数形式。例如:

1) Food and rent are more expensive than they used to be.

2) Jim and Mary spoke on the subject as if they were experts.

3.应注意的问题

(1)当句子的主语是one, 并要在句子中多次出现时,一般用第三人称单数代词来代替后面将出现的one或one’s;当one在句子中泛指人时,在反意疑问句中也可用you来代替。例如:

1) One should never blame his friends when he friends when he finds himself in trouble.

2) One can’t be too careful, can you (one)?






DON' t  feel life owe you something,you must think how muchyou' ve paid for life.
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Jennifer115
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发表于 2006-3-21 21:24  资料  个人空间  短消息  加为好友 
好麻烦啊





雨过了,我站上电线杆,等风,把我吹干…… 小时候的这根电线杆还在,我的童年呢?
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