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  “财务年度末”一般用“at the close of the fiscal year”,而不用“in the end of the fiscal year”; ,

  “在……之前”一般用“prior to”,而不用“before”; ,

  “关于”常用“as regards”, “concerning”或“relating to”,而不会用“about”;

  “事实上”用“in effect”,而不用“in fact”;

  “开始”用“commencement”,而不用“start”或“begin”;

  “停止做”用“cease to do”,而不用“stop to do”;

  “何时开会并由某某主持”的表述为:The meeting shall be convened and presided by sb.

  其中“召开”不用“hold 或call”,而用“convene”; “主持”不用“chair”或“be in charge of ”,而用“preside”;

  “其他事项”用“miscellaneous”, 而不用“other matters/events”;

  “理解合同”用“construe a contract” 或“comprehend a contract”,而不用“understand a contract”;

  “认为”用“deem”,用“consider”少,不用“think”或“believe”;

  “愿意做”用“intend to do”或“desire to do”,而不用“want to do”, “wish to do”。

  三、用词专业(technical terms) ,

  合同用词不以大众是否理解和接受为转移,它是合同语言准确表达的保障。如合同出现的“瑕疵”、 “救济”、 “不可抗力”、 “管辖”、“损毁”、 “灭失”等就可能让非行业人士费解,在英语以上表达分别为defect、remedy、force majuere/Act of God、jurisdiction、damage and/or loss)。另外几乎每个合同都少不了hereinafter referred to as , whereas, in witness whereof, for and on behalf of , hereby, thereof 等虚词。这也是合同英语的一大特色。 (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  其它例子还有: ,

  “赔偿”用“indemnities”,而不用“compensation”

  “不动产转让”用“conveyance”,而不用“transfer of real estate”

  “房屋出租”用“tenancy”,而“财产出租”用“lease of property”

  “停业”用“wind up a business”或“cease (名词是cessation) a business”,而不用“end/stop a business”

  专利许可中的“特许权使用费”只用“royalities”

  还款或专利申请的“宽限期”英文“grace”,

  “当事人在破产中的和解”用“composition”

  以实物出资为“investment in kind”

  “依照合同相关规定”一般说“pursuant to provisions contained herein”或“as provided herein”等,不说“according to relevant terms and conditions in the contract”

  “合同任何一方当事人不得转让本合同”英文表述为“Neither party hereto may assign this contract”,其中“hereto”表示“to the contract”,选用“Neither party to the contract”较少。

  3. 同义词、近义词、相关词的序列

  FOR value RECEIVED,the undersigned does hereby sell, transfer, assign and set over to ______ all his right, tile and interest in and to a certain contract dated ______, 19____ by and between the undersigned and ______,a copy of which is annexed hereto.

  在这里的同义词和近义词并列(如sell, transfer, assign and set over,right和 tile and interest),在英文合同里十分普遍。这是出于严谨和杜绝漏洞的考虑,有的也属于合同用语的固定模式。如:

  This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.句中“made and entered into”和“by and between”两组分别属于同义词和相关词并列。

  For and in consideration of mutual covenants and agreements contained herein, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows:句中“for and in consideration of ”, “covenants and agreements”三组同义司和近义词并列。

  The parties have agreed to vary the Management on the terms and subject to the conditions contained herein. 这里的“on the terms”和“subject to the conditions”是一个意思都表示“依照本协议的条款规定”。合同条款的固定模式是“terms and conditions”

  再例如: ,

  “Party A wishes to be released and discharged from agreement as from the effective date”,一句中的“release”和“discharge”意思几乎相同。

  并列的词还有:

  ships and vessels

  support and maintenance

  licenses and permits

  charges, fees, costs and expenses

  any and all

  any duties, obligations or liabilities
 
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